Table 2—

Cox proportional hazards models with baseline risk factors and incident CHD, age, and diabetes duration adjusted

Standardized hazard ratios (95% CI)
TotalMenWomen
n2,3291,2021,127
Age (years)*1.60 (1.30–1.96)1.55 (1.15–2.09)1.67 (1.26–2.21)
Diabetes duration (years)*1.16 (0.95–1.40)1.12 (0.85–1.49)1.16 (0.89–1.52)
GHb (%)1.20 (1.02–1.41)§1.34 (1.06–1.68)1.07 (0.85–1.35)
Waist circumference (cm)1.07 (0.92–1.26)1.19 (0.94–1.52)1.13 (0.92–1.39)
WHR1.15 (0.99–1.33) (P = 0.06)1.32 (1.08–1.62)1.16 (0.97–1.39) (P = 0.11)
BMI (kg/m2)1.05 (0.90–1.23)1.17 (0.92–1.48)1.00 (0.81–1.24)
Systolic BP (mmHg)1.17 (1.01–1.36)§1.11 (0.88–1.39)1.26 (1.03–1.54)§
Diastolic BP (mmHg)0.98 (0.84–1.14)0.90 (0.71–1.14)1.08 (0.88–1.34)
Cholesterol (mg/dl)1.04 (0.88–1.22)1.04 (0.81–1.33)1.02 (0.82–1.26)
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)1.05 (0.87–1.26)1.12 (0.83–1.52)1.00 (0.79–1.26)
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)0.82 (0.70–0.97)§0.75 (0.58–0.97)§0.82 (0.66–1.02) (P = 0.08)
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)1.11 (0.96–1.30) (P = 0.17)1.14 (0.90–1.43)1.09 (0.89–1.34)
FTG (mg/dl)1.27 (1.08–1.50)1.26 (0.96–1.64) (P = 0.10)1.36 (1.10–1.69)
Current smoking versus nonsmoking1.30 (0.93–1.83) (P = 0.13)1.62 (1.004–2.62)§1.08 (0.66–1.78)
Exsmoking versus nonsmoking0.70 (0.46–1.09) (P = 0.11)0.70 (0.39–1.28)0.78 (0.40–1.52)
Retinopathy1.68 (1.09–2.60)§1.42 (0.77–2.62)2.02 (1.07–3.82)§
Neuropathy1.34 (0.95–1.89)1.77 (1.07–2.95)§1.07 (0.67–1.72)
Autonomic neuropathy1.41 (1.00–2.00) (P = 0.05)1.79 (1.08–2.97)§1.15 (0.71–1.86)
Microalbuminuria1.65 (1.16–2.37)1.57 (0.91–2.70) (P = 0.10)1.87 (1.16–3.02)
Macroalbuminuria2.74 (1.79–4.19)3.53 (1.97–6.33)2.38 (1.24–4.57)
AER (μg/min)1.50 (1.32–1.70)1.68 (1.39–2.02)1.43 (1.20–1.71)
Hypertension (yes versus no)1.31 (0.91–1.86) (P = 0.14)1.30 (0.77–2.18)1.35 (0.83–2.19)
  • *

    * Age adjusted for diabetes duration and vice versa for diabetes duration.

  • Log transformed;

  • P ≤ 0.0001;

  • §

    § P ≤ 0.05;

  • P ≤ 0.01;

  • P ≤ 0.001. Adjustment for center does not change these results. Standardized hazards ratios (Exp[β × SD]).