Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of FDS participants who had baseline spirometry only and those who had baseline and follow-up spirometry

Baseline only
Baseline and follow-upTrend P value
Deceased by 31 January 2002Alive on 31 January 2002
n102268125
Age (years)71.0 ± 8.962.1 ± 10.6*61.5 ± 8.6*<0.001
Duration of diabetes (years)7.6 (3.0–17.0)4.7 (1.4–10.0)*2.3 (0.6–6.5)*<0.001
Sex (% men)60.847.848.80.07
BMI (kg/m2)29.0 ± 4.929.9 ± 5.429.9 ± 5.00.29
Waist: normal/overweight/obese (%)13.0/21.0/66.012.5/24.2/63.412.0/20.0/68.00.89
Supine systolic blood pressure (mmHg)160 ± 25150 ± 21*146 ± 20*<0.001
Supine diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)82 ± 1282 ± 1082 ± 90.87
Any exercise in the previous 2 weeks (%)66.373.284.8*0.005
Alcohol consumption (standard drinks/day)0 (0–1.2)0 (0–0.4)0 (0–0.8)0.63
Current/ex-/never smokers (%)15.8/49.5/34.715.7/39.3/44.914.4/38.4/47.20.33
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)8.6 (6.6–11.8)8.7 (7.0–11.0)8.0 (6.7–9.9)0.17
HbA1c (%)7.9 (6.5–9.2)7.6 (6.6–9.1)7.3 (6.3–8.5)0.03
Total serum cholesterol (mmol/l)5.6 ± 1.15.5 ± 1.05.6 ± 1.10.70
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.00 ± 0.291.00 ± 0.311.06 ± 0.310.20
Serum triglycerides (mmol/l)1.8 (1.1–2.9)1.9 (1.1–3.2)1.7 (1.0–3.0)0.20
Microalbuminuria or worse (%)63.638.5*30.1*<0.001
Retinopathy (%)33.315.4*14.4*<0.001
Neuropathy (%)61.327.4*15.7*<0.001
Coronary heart disease (%)57.826.0*29.0*<0.001
FVC percentage predicted value
 Knudson82.6 ± 20.090.7 ± 17.1*94.3 ± 19.3*<0.001
 Busselton81.3 ± 18.987.8 ± 14.9*90.1 ± 16.9*<0.001
FEV1 percentage predicted value
 Knudson79.6 ± 21.090.5 ± 18.2*94.7 ± 22.0*<0.001
 Busselton82.2 ± 20.591.3 ± 17.2*94.2 ± 21.3*<0.001
VC percentage predicted value80.4 ± 20.289.7 ± 19.5*92.9 ± 17.7*<0.001
PEF percentage predicted value69.7 ± 25.884.0 ± 25.5*87.7 ± 24.6*<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD, median (interquartile range), or proportions or geometric means (SD range).

  • *

    * P < 0.01 versus baseline only and deceased by 31 January 2002;

  • P < 0.01 versus baseline only and alive on 31 January 2002. Boldface data indicate significance.