Table 1—

Baseline demographic, anthropometric, and metabolic characteristics of participants without the metabolic syndrome at baseline, by sex

Baseline variableTotalWomenMen
n714396318
Age54.4 ± 8.554.3 ± 8.554.5 ± 8.5
Ethnicity (non-Hispanic white/black/Hispanic)40.3/28.9/30.837.6/30.1/32.343.7/27.4/28.9
Metabolic syndrome components
 Waist circumference (cm)87.4 ± 11.083.4 ± 11.292.4 ± 8.5
 Triglycerides (mg/dl)116.1 ± 70.5106.4 ± 58.6128.2 ± 81.4
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)49.5 ± 15.354.7 ± 15.143.0 ± 13.0
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)119.8 ± 16.0119.0 ± 16.6120.8 ± 15.1
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76.9 ± 9.075.6 ± 8.778.6 ± 9.2
 Fasting glucose (mg/dl)96.7 ± 10.494.7 ± 10.299.2 ± 10.0
Fasting insulin (μU/ml)14.2 ± 15.414.0 ± 14.514.4 ± 16.4
Proinsulin (pmol/l)4.9 ± 3.34.4 ± 3.05.6 ± 3.6
Insulin sensitivity (Si) (10−4 · min−1 · μU−1 · ml−1)2.5 ± 2.12.6 ± 2.22.4 ± 2.1
Acute insulin response (pmol · ml−1 · min−1)493.6 ± 471.4473.0 ± 427.6519.0 ± 519.6
2-h insulin (μU/ml)83.2 ± 72.981.9 ± 67.384.7 ± 79.3
2-h glucose (mg/dl)119.0 ± 32.1119.3 ± 31.4118.6 ± 32.9
Total energy expenditure (kcal · kg−1 · year−1)14,826 ± 2,70914,396 ± 2,24315,358 ± 3,115
Proportion with IGT26.628.024.8
Proportion with one metabolic syndrome component at baseline34.633.635.9
Proportion with two metabolic syndrome components at baseline34.734.335.2
Proportion that develops incident metabolic syndrome19.520.917.1
  • Data are means ± SD unless noted otherwise.