Table 2—

Unadjusted and adjusted predictors for incident metabolic syndrome per SD

Variable (SD)UnadjustedAdjusted*Adjusted for IGT
Age (8.5 years)0.9 (0.8–1.1)
Sex0.8 (0.6–1.2)
Study site
 Los Angeles0.8 (0.5–1.4)
 Oakland1.3 (0.8–2.2)
 San Antonio1.3 (0.8–2.2)
Ethnicity
 Black0.8 (0.5–1.3)
 Hispanic1.0 (0.6–1.5)
Metabolic syndrome components
 Waist circumference (11.0 cm)1.5 (1.3–1.9)1.8 (1.4–2.2)1.7 (1.3–2.0)
 Triglycerides (70.5 mg/dl)1.3 (1.1–1.5)1.3 (1.1–1.6)1.3 (1.1–1.5)
 HDL cholesterol (15.3 mg/dl)0.7 (0.5–0.8)0.6 (0.4–0.7)0.6 (0.4–0.7)
 Systolic blood pressure (16.0 mmHg)1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.3 (1.0–1.6)1.3 (1.0–1.6)
 Diastolic blood pressure (9.0 mmHg)1.1 (0.9–1.3)1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.1 (0.9–1.4)
 Fasting glucose (10.4 mg/dl)1.4 (1.2–1.7)1.5 (1.2–1.8)1.3 (1.1–1.6)
Fasting insulin (15.4 μU/ml)1.3 (1.1–1.6)1.3 (1.1–1.6)1.2 (1.0–1.5)
Proinsulin (3.3 pmol/l)1.7 (1.4–2.0)1.8 (1.5–2.2)1.7 (1.4–2.0)
Insulin sensitivity (Si) (2.1 · 10−4 · min−1 · μU−1 · ml−1)0.6 (0.5–0.8)0.5 (0.4–0.7)0.6 (0.5–0.8)
Acute insulin response (471.4 pmol · ml−1 · min−1)0.9 (0.8–1.1)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
2-h insulin (72.9 μU/ml)1.3 (1.1–1.6)1.4 (1.2–1.6)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
2-h glucose (32.1 mg/dl)1.5 (1.2–1.8)1.6 (1.3–1.9)1.2 (0.8–1.6)
Total energy expenditure (2,709 kcal · kg−1 · year−1)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.2)
IGT (yes/no)2.6 (1.8–3.8)3.0 (2.0–4.4)
  • Data are OR (95% CI). N = 714, and n with incident metabolic syndrome = 139.

  • *

    * Models adjusted for age, sex, study site, and ethnicity;

  • models adjusted for age, sex, study site, ethnicity, and IGT status. Bold data indicate statistical significance (P < 0.001).