Table 1—

Depression and demographic characteristics by depression grouping

VariablesTotal sampleNo depressionMinor depressionMajor depressionOverall test statistics (χ2, df = 2)Minor vs. none (χ2, df = 1)Major vs. none (χ2, df = 1)
n (%)4,193*3,335 (79.5)357 (8.5)501 (12)
Women2,042 (48.7)1,567 (47.0)182 (51.0)293 (58.5)23.861.9122.59
High school or less1,047 (25.3)801 (24.3)112 (31.7)134 (27.2)10.338.941.74
Unmarried and not living as married1,403 (33.7)1,068 (32.3)132 (37.2)203 (41.0)14.893.3014.41
Employment: full or part time1,677 (41.2)1,339 (41.2)126 (36.8)212 (44.6)4.992.221.91
Caucasian3,196 (77.7)2,561 (78.2)255 (72.2)380 (77.9)
African American338 (8.2)256 (7.8)34 (9.6)48 (9.8)21.6610.14§13.14
Asian369 (9.0)306 (9.3)36 (10.2)27 (5.3)df = 6df = 3
Other212 (5.2)151 (4.6)28 (7.9)33 (6.8)
F(2, 4,190)t(3,690)t(3,834)
Age in years64.9 ± 12.664.9 ± 12.364.7 ± 13.359.7 ± 13.037.540.228.69
Rx Risk score
 First quartile1,024 ± 24.4810 ± 24.389 ± 24.9125 ± 25.0
 Second quartile1,077 ± 25.7895 ± 26.866 ± 18.5116 ± 23.125.0214.1012.99
 Third quartile1,040 ± 24.8838 ± 25.295 ± 26.6107 ± 21.4df = 6df = 3df = 4
 Fourth quartile1,052 ± 25.1792 ± 23.7107 ± 30.0153 ± 30.5
Diabetes complications
 01,312 ± 31.31,094 ± 32.891 ± 25.5127 ± 25.3
 11,333 ± 31.81,078 ± 32.3106 ± 29.7149 ± 29.751.5125.9633.58
 2802 ± 19.1619 ± 18.680 ± 22.4103 ± 20.6df = 8df = 4df = 2
 3423 ± 10.1329 ± 9.935 ± 9.859 ± 11.8
 4+323 ± 7.7215 ± 6.445 ± 12.663 ± 12.6
HbA1c level groups27.061.7925.94
 <8.00%2,667 ± 63.62,179 ± 65.3220 ± 61.6268 ± 53.5
 ≥8.00%1,526 ± 36.41,156 ± 34.7137 ± 38.4233 ± 46.5
Duration of diabetes in years
 >51,541 ± 36.81,269 ± 38.1107 ± 30.1165 ± 33.016.849.009.21
 >5–9.91,097 ± 26.2872 ± 26.2103 ± 28.9122 ± 24.4df = 4df = 2df = 2
 >10.01,548 ± 37.01,189 ± 35.7146 ± 41.0213 ± 42.6
BMI72.027.9567.38
 <30.0 kg/m22,055 ± 49.71,736 ± 52.8157 ± 44.7162 ± 32.9
 >30.0 kg/m22,077 ± 50.31,552 ± 47.2194 ± 55.3331 ± 67.1
Smoking currently357 ± 8.7238 ± 7.337 ± 10.582 ± 16.749.664.44§47.63
Treatment intensity
 None or diet1,076 ± 25.7910 ± 27.379 ± 22.187 ± 17.474.4813.2168.10
 Oral hypoglycemic1,973 ± 47.01,607 ± 48.2160 ± 44.8206 ± 41.1df = 4df = 2df = 2
 Insulin or insulin+ oral hypoglycemic1,144 ± 27.3818 ± 24.5118 ± 33.1208 ± 41.5
  • Data are n (%) or mean ± SD.

  • *

    * Sample size may vary with 10% missing data. df = 1 unless otherwise indicated;

  • P > 0.001;

  • P < 0.01;

  • §

    § P < 0.05.