Table 1—

Nutrient intake, clinical characteristics, and laboratory data of study subjects

Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
MenChangeCVWomenChangeCVMenChangeCVWomenChangeCV
n41524257
Energy (kcal/day)2,290 (1,947–2,635)7.5181,736 (1,482–2,203)6.8181,936 (1,654–2,239)−0.9191,581 (1,325–1,773)1.417
Carbohydrate (%)38.7 (34.3–43.8)−1.71837.2 (33.7–42.0)−1.12137.9 (34.8–42.4)4.81638.4 (34.0–43.1)0.319
  Grams218 (169–271)10.123162 (132–211)5.124181 (156–213)2.726146 (118–183)1.923
Protein (%)17.7 (16.3–21)−5.02118.1 (16.4–20.4)−4.22219.4 (18.022.4)−6.91721.0 (19.4–24.3)−1.418
  Grams106 (91–117)0.22377 (69–89)0.52595 (81–104)−9.72282 (73–97)−2.620
Total fat (%)40.1 (36.6–44.8)1.01642.7 (39.9–47.0)8.21837.8 (33.4–42.7)3.21639.3 (35.1–42.1)5.520
  Grams99 (85–121)10.52879 (73–107)17.02882 (68–94)2.82668 (56–81)8.130
 SFAs (%)31.6 (27.2–43.7)5.03132.6 (26.1–41.0)17.03330.1 (23.2–36.9)−4.33330.8 (24.6–40.0)7.338
 MUFAs (%)54.5 (44.7–66.1)20.73154.8 (48.3–70.6)19.73256.2 (45.2–68.5)4.02856.0 (43.1–66.2)17.433
 PUFAs (%)14.5 (10.5–17.0)13.04213.0 (9.8–16.2)16.53913.2 (10.1–17.1)21.63312.1 (9.9–14.6)11.938
 MUFAs/SFAs1.72 (1.27–1.98)38.7491.69 (1.35–2.13)14.5421.87 (1.52–2.01)39.3391.89 (1.53–2.13)32.441
 PUFAs/SFAs0.45 (0.38–0.55)34.5410.41 (0.38–0.50)11.1360.44 (0.36–0.56)44.3360.40 (0.36–0.49)36.544
 Cholesterol (mg)452 (366–566)3.952333 (278–393)0.954362 (312–434)−9.752297 (218–374)0.856
Fiber (g)19.1 (13.0–24.1)3.84314.7 (11.9–18.5)−13.54619.6 (15.5–28.3)−1.63718.6 (14.3–20.8)−6.240
Alcohol (%)5.0 (0–11.0)5.2860.0 (0.0–2.2)0.2824.5 (0.0–11.6)0.7880.0 (0.0–2.5)−0.192
Body weight (kg)71.6 (66.4–78.5)7.460.0 (54.5–68.3)4.575.3 (71.2–86.5)1.670.9 (67.0–76.51.7
BMI (kg/m2)24.1 (22.5–26.8)2.023.7 (21.5–26.9)1.730.5 (27.2–34.5)0.532.8 (30.1–38.5)3.8
Waist perimeter (cm)84 (80–93)5.573 (70–82)3.2104 (92–122)5.199 (89–106)3.2
Waist-to-hip ratio0.89 (0.84–0.92)0.00.79 (0.71–0.83)0.00.97 (0.89–1.08)0.00.88 (0.80–0.94)−0.0
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)125 (110–135)4.2120 (110–133)1.7140 (140–160)4.3140 (136–160)−2.0
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77 (70–80)3.775 (65–80)4.380 (79–86)1.280 (76–85)4.7
HbA1c (%)6.9 (6.1–8.0)−1.17.5 (6.3–8.6)−0.76.4 (5.5–8.2)−1.16.3 (5.8–8.6)−1.2
Cholesterol (mg/dl)188 (154–206)−6.1208 (167–229)6.1193 (169–217)−20.3209 (188–221)−8.9
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)60 (53–65)5.769 (58–79)11.558 (48–65)13.261 (53–69)12.8
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)110 (78–138)−1.6118 (92–140)−5.3111 (84–134)−35.9116 (105–137)−17.4
Triglycerides (mg/dl)74 (60–100)−1.258 (43–77)−22.898 (82–138)−13.295 (73–128)−8.3
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)125 (92–145)−0.3135 (96–164)−6.2136 (102–158)−18.5143 (113–178)−15.6
Apolipoprotein A1143 (126–156)NV171 (143–189)NV144 (132–156)NV157 (145–172)NV
Apolipoprotein B73 (56–97)NV82 (68–95)NV105 (88–118)NV100 (84–115)NV
Lipoprotein(a) mg/dl11.6 (9.6–24)NV10.6 (9.6–24.5)NV16.4 (9.6–48.3)NV17.2 (9.6–85)NV
Albumin-to-creatinine ratio <30 mg/g35 (85.3)043 (82.7)5.824 (57.1)−14.344 (77.2)−8.8
  • Data are median (Q1–Q3) and n (%). CV, coefficient of variation; MUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids; NV, not evaluated in 1993; PUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFAs, saturated fatty acids. Change was calculated as (value in year 2000 − value in year 1993) × 100/value in year 1993.