Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the entire cohort, who did not have the metabolic syndrome or diabetes at baseline, and men who developed the metabolic syndrome or diabetes during follow-up

Entire cohortMetabolic syndrome at follow-upDiabetes at follow-up
n70214757
Age (years)51.3 ± 6.751.4 ± 6.852.2 ± 5.6
Smokers (%)2733*21
Cardiovascular disease (%)3240*35
Alcohol consumption (g/week)32 (7–92)42 (8–107)42 (4–106)
Family history of diabetes (%)263137
Adult socioeconomic status score7.2 ± 4.07.3 ± 4.07.1 ± 4.0
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)130 ± 15134 ± 15133 ± 14
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)87 ± 890 ± 1089 ± 10
Blood pressure medication (%)162723
BMI (kg/m2)26.2 ± 2.928.1 ± 2.627.8 ± 2.7
WHR0.93 ± 0.060.97 ± 0.070.97 ± 0.09
Waist circumference (cm)88.7 ± 8.794.2 ± 6.694.1 ± 6.9
Serum LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.8 ± 0.93.8 ± 0.93.8 ± 0.9
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.32 ± 0.291.21 ± 0.201.29 ± 0.21
Serum triglycerides (mmol/l)1.11 (0.82–1.58)1.42 (1.05–1.82)1.45 (1.05–1.71)
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/l)4.49 ± 0.434.61 ± 0.454.87 ± 0.46
Fasting serum insulin (mU/l)8.8 (6.7–11.3)10.9 (8.1–14.0)12.1 (7.9–16.1)
Moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity (min/week)1.34 (57–241)128 (45–218)107 (32–240)
Serum total testosterone (nmol/l)20.4 ± 6.918.3 ± 6.418.0 ± 6.6
 Low testosterone levels (<11 nmol/l)5%7%11%*
Calculated free testosterone (pmol/l)304 ± 75291 ± 79*286 ± 71
 Low free testosterone (<160 pmol/l)1.4%1.4%3.5%
SHBG (nmol/l)34.5 (26.3–43.9)28.2 (23.3–38.1)26.2 (22.2–38.3)
  • Data are means ± SD, medians (interquartile range), or percent. Higher adult socioeconomic status score means lower socioeconomic status.

  • *

    * P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.01,

  • P < 0.001, univariate logistic regression analysis with either the metabolic syndrome or diabetes as the outcome variable.