Table 1—

Characteristics of SHS participants with diabetes, by baseline LEA status, n = 2,108

CharacteristicDiabetic subjects with LEADiabetic, no LEADifference in means or crude OR (95% CI)P
n1341,974
Age (years)58.157.01.1 (−0.3 to 2.5)0.13
Sex (male)70 (52)712 (36)1.9 (1.4–2.8)<0.01
Center
 North/South Dakota14 (10)514 (26)1.0
 Oklahoma13 (10)560 (28)0.9 (0.4–1.8)0.68
 Arizona107 (80)900 (46)4.4 (2.5–7.7)<0.01
Duration of diabetes (years)*19.811.97.9 (6.2–9.5)<0.01
Undiagnosed diabetes480 (24)N/A
HbA1c (%)9.08.50.5 (0.1–1.0)0.02
Hypertension69 (52)893 (45)1.3 (0.9–1.8)0.16
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)1381316.5 (2.9–10.2)<0.01
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78770.7 (−1.0 to 2.5)0.42
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)187190−2.7 (−11.0 to 5.5)0.56
Triglycerides (mg/dl)19817720.1 (−14.9 to 55.0)0.19
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)44431.5 (−0.7 to 3.6)0.34
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)101110−9.9 (−16.1 to −3.8)<0.01
Fibrinogen ln (mg/dl)5.875.740.14 (0.09–0.18)<0.01
BMI (kg/m2)29.332.2−2.9 (−4.1 to −1.7)<0.01
At-risk drinking§36 (27)419 (21)1.4 (0.90–2.0)0.13
Ever smoker92 (69)1,323 (67)1.1 (0.7–1.6)0.73
Albuminuria
 Normal16 (13)971 (51)1.0
 Microalbuminuria26 (22)589 (31)2.7 (1.4–5.0)<0.01
 Macroalbuminuria77 (65)344 (18)13.6 (7.8–23.6)<0.01
ABI group
 <0.90 (low)11 (9)120 (6)2.7 (1.4–5.2)<0.01
 ≥0.90 to ≤1.40 (normal)55 (47)1,600 (82)1.0
 >1.40 (high)52 (44)230 (12)6.6 (4.4–9.9)<0.01
  • Data are n (%), unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Data available for 126 diabetic subjects with LEA and 1,423 participants with reported diabetes and no LEA.

  • No reported diabetes and fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl.

  • Systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or taking antihypertension medication.

  • §

    § Report of 5 or more drinks on one occasion or 14 or more drinks in a single week.

  • Data available for 119 diabetic subjects with LEA and 1,904 diabetic subjects with no LEA.

  • Data available for 118 diabetic subjects with LEA and 1,950 diabetic subjects with no LEA.