Table 1—

Participant characteristics by organizational model type and health plan profit status.

CharacteristicFor-profit health plan (n = 4)
Nonprofit health plan (n = 6)
Provider groups (n)158101718
Managed care experience (years)151591551
Participants (n)1,0131,2482,2037573,133
Mean age (years)6664576361
Women (%)5454615149
Race or ethnicity (%)
 White non-Hispanic2846496438
 Black non-Hispanic52932118
 Asian or Pacific Islander03101427
Education (%)
 8th grade or less30121076
 Some high school121521129
 High school/GED2431303129
 Some college2326223234
 4-year college graduate6891011
 >4-year college degree488811
Annual household income (%)
Interview conducted in Spanish (%)134002
Diabetes duration (mean years)1314121312
Diabetes treatment (%)
 Diet and exercise only545513
 Oral medication only7268526161
 Insulin only1015272316
 Insulin and oral medication1213151110
Health status (%)
 Very good1819161619
Charlson comorbidity index (mean)
  • *

    * Includes IPA and direct-contracting models.