Table 2—

Unadjusted and adjusted mean change scores (95% CI) from baseline to 6-month follow-up*

Patient-reported outcomeBaselineΔUNADJ (95% CI)ΔADJ§ (95% CI)P ΔADJ
HRQ
 HUI3
 Intervention0.69 ± 0.260.02 (−0.03 to 0.03)0.06 (0.02–0.10)0.03
 Control0.59 ± 0.320.003 (−0.007 to 0.05)0.01 (−0.04 to 0.04)
Satisfaction
 Diabetes care
 Intervention76.4 ± 22.53.59 (0.60–6.59)5.27 (1.04–9.51)0.001
 Control61.8 ± 24.0−5.61 (−8.90 to −2.31)−3.67 (−7.80 to −0.46)
 Medical care
 Intervention77.9 ± 22.01.81 (−1.10 to 4.72)3.89 (−0.41 to 8.18)<0.001
 Control65.9 ± 25.6−5.93 (−9.17 to −2.70)−6.56 (−10.73 to −2.39)
DLF
 Overall
 Intervention3.75 ± 0.500.08 (0.03–0.13)0.06 (−0.02 to 0.14)0.04
 Control3.67 ± 0.54−0.04 (−0.10 to 0.02)−0.07 (−0.15 to 0.02)
 Beliefs
 Intervention3.70 ± 0.620.07 (−0.006 to 0.14)0.09 (−0.02 to 0.19)0.04
 3Control3.49 ± 0.72−0.05 (−0.13 to 0.36)−0.05 (−0.16 to 0.05)
 Attitudes
 Intervention3.82 ± 0.570.07 (0.01 to 0.13)0.03 (−0.06 to 0.12)0.04
 Control3.83 ± 0.60−0.02 (−0.09 to 0.05)−0.09 (−0.16 to 0.005)
 Self-efficacy
 Intervention3.67 ± 0.740.13 (0.05–0.22)0.07 (−0.05 to 0.20)0.03
 Control3.56 ± 0.82−0.03 (−0.12 to 0.06)−0.10 (−0.21 to 0.02)
Summary of diabetes self-care activities
 Diet
 Intervention−0.025 ± 0.42−0.03 (−0.08 to 0.03)0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13)0.56
 Control0.006 ± 0.47−0.004 (−0.06 to 0.06)0.02 (−0.05 to 0.10)
 Exercise
 Intervention0.12 ± 0.87−0.11 (−0.20 to −0.02)−0.09 (−0.23 to 0.05)0.68
 Control−0.008 ± 0.88−0.15 (−0.25 to −0.05)−0.13 (−0.25 to 0.001)
 Testing
 Intervention−0.035 ± 0.61−0.07 (−0.15 to −0.002)0.08 (−0.03 to 0.19)0.06
 Control0.034 ± 0.700.05 (−0.03 to 0.13)−0.05 (−0.15 to 0.05)
 Medication#
 Intervention0.020 ± 1.010.02 (−0.09 to 0.14)0.11 (−0.07 to 0.28)0.53
 Control−0.098 ± 0.70−0.09 (−0.25 to 0.07)0.17 (0.004–0.34)
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Analyses were performed according to intent to treat. Last value carried forward imputation was used.

  • ΔUNADJ, follow-up patient reported outcome minus baseline; adjusted only for baseline differences on patient reported outcome, but not clinical characteristics or demographics.

  • ΔADJ, follow-up patient reported outcome minus baseline; mean difference adjusted for income, age, BMI, aboriginal status, sex, education, marital status, duration of diabetes, and baseline score.

  • §

    § n for adjusted analysis was smaller than unadjusted due to missing data on covariates.

  • P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05.

  • #

    # Analysis was performed only for individuals who used oral medication or insulin to manage their diabetes.