Table 4—

Cox regression analysis for development of CHF for patients with type 2 diabetes

Hazard ratio95% CIP
Age at baseline (per 5 years)1.401.35–1.450.001
Ischemic heart disease*2.362.06–2.690.001
BMI (per 2.5 units)1.121.09–1.150.001
Mean HbA1c (per percentage point)1.321.23–1.410.001
Duration of diabetes (per year)1.051.03–1.070.001
Microalbuminuria*0.780.65–0.930.006
Gross proteinuria*1.251.08–1.460.004
ESRD*1.541.04–2.300.032
Mean diastolic blood pressure (per 5 mmHg)1.101.04–1.160.001
Use of insulin*1.251.06–1.480.007
Use of sulfonylurea*0.990.85–1.170.892
Use of metformin*1.020.86–1.220.849
Female sex*0.970.85–1.100.656
  • *

    * Dichotomous variables, where hazard ratio represents risk if variable is present.