Table 2—

Baseline characteristics of American Indians with diabetes without a history of LEA by LEA status at follow-up: the SHS

CharacteristicIncident LEANo LEADifference in means or crude relative risk (95% CI)*P
n871,887
Age (years)56.257.1−0.9 (−2.6 to 0.8)0.31
Sex [n (% male)]43 (49)669 (35)1.7 (1.2–2.6)<0.01
Center
    North/South Dakota17 (20)497 (26)1.0
    Oklahoma14 (16)546 (29)0.8 (0.4–1.5)0.43
    Arizona56 (64)844 (45)1.9 (1.1–3.2)0.02
Duration of diabetes (years)14.811.73.1 (1.1–5.1)<0.01
Undiagnosed diabetes2 (2)478 (25)NA
HbA1c (%)9.88.41.5 (0.9–2.0)<0.01
Hypertension§42 (48)851 (45)1.1 (0.8–1.7)0.56
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)1381317.1 (2.7–11.5)<0.01
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78771.2 (−1.0 to 3.3)0.29
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)184190−5.8 (−15.6 to 3.9)0.24
Triglycerides (mg/dl)174178−3.9 (−46.2 to 38.4)0.81
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)4343−0.2 (−2.7 to 2.3)0.88
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)106111−4.7 (−12.1 to 2.6)0.21
Fibrinogen (mg/dl) (ln)5.85.70.1 (−0.01 to 0.11)0.09
BMI (kg/m2)29.832.3−2.5 (−1.1 to −3.9)<0.01
Ever smoker59 (69)1,264 (67)1.1 (0.7–1.7)0.78
High school education or higher24 (28)905 (48)0.43 (0.27–0.68)<0.01
At-risk drinking23 (26)396 (21)1.3 (0.8–2.1)0.22
Albuminuria
    Normal13 (16)958 (53)1.0
    Microalbuminuria44 (54)545 (30)5.6 (3.0–10.3)<0.01
    Macroalbuminuria25 (30)319 (17)5.4 (2.8–10.5)<0.01
Peripheral arterial disease
    ABI (low)8 (9)112 (6)1.8 (0.9–3.8)0.09
    ABI ≥0.9 to ≤1.4 (normal)58 (67)1,542 (83)1.0
    ABI >1.4 (high)20 (23)210 (11)2.4 (1.5–3.9)<0.01
  • Data are n (%), unless noted otherwise. N = 1,974.

  • *

    * Data represent differences in mean baseline values (95% CI) for continuous variables between participants with and without incident LEA or relative risks (95% CI) for categorical variables, both over 7.9 years of follow-up;

  • data were available for 126 participants with diabetes and LEA and for 1,423 participants with reported diabetes and no LEA;

  • no reported diabetes and fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl;

  • §

    § systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or taking antihypertensive medication;

  • report of ≥5 drinks on one occasion or ≥14 drinks in a single week.