Table 1—

Clinical features of the study groups with and without retinopathy

VariablesWithout retinopathyWith retinopathyP
n474116
Age (years)52 ± 1154 ± 110.016
Men199 (42)58 (50)0.321
Duration of diabetes (years)3 ± 47 ± 6<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)25.5 ± 4.323.1 ± 3.7<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)91 ± 1087 ± 10<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)128 ± 18131 ± 220.139
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78 ± 1076 ± 110.082
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)8.6 ± 3.711.0 ± 4.5<0.001
HbA1c (%)8.5 ± 2.010.0 ± 2.2<0.001
Serum cholesterol (mmol/l)5.22 ± 1.045.56 ± 1.410.004
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.14 ± 0.271.18 ± 0.260.205
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.21 ± 0.973.35 ± 1.180.187
Serum triglycerides (mmol/l)1.90 ± 1.412.26 ± 1.670.019
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)79.1 ± 15.483.1 ± 17.60.014
Proteinuria24 (5.1)20 (17.2)<0.001
Microalbuminuria120 (25.3)60 (51.7)<0.001
Smokers43 (9.1)8 (6.9)0.455
Hypertension150 (31.6)42 (36.2)0.347
CAD60 (12.7)25 (21.6)0.014
Treatment for diabetes
    Newly detected diabetic subjects141 (29.7)7 (6.0)
    Known diabetic subjects
        Diet25 (5.3)1 (0.9)
        Oral drugs282 (59.5)76 (65.5)<0.001
        Insulin7 (1.5)10 (8.6)
        Oral drugs + insulin19 (4.0)22 (19.0)
IMT (mm)
    Overall0.85 ± 0.210.93 ± 0.360.001
    Mild to moderate NPDR0.93 ± 0.44*
    Severe NPDR0.95 ± 0.20†
    PDR0.86 ± 0.20
AI (%)
    Overall25.8 ± 9.627.9 ± 8.90.031
    Mild to moderate NPDR27.6 ± 9.4
    Severe NPDR28.4 ± 8.3
    PDR27.8 ± 8.9
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%). *P = 0.001, compared with subjects with no diabetic retinopathy; †P = 0.038, compared with subjects with no diabetic retinopathy. NPDR, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy.