Table 2—

Association of IMT and AI with diabetic retinopathy after individually adjusting for different risk variables

VariableDiabetic retinopathy and IMT
Diabetic retinopathy and AI
Odds ratio (95% CI)POdds ratio (95% CI)P
Age2.659 (1.087–6.50)0.0321.019 (0.996–1.042)0.105
Sex3.390 (1.435–8.006)0.0051.030 (1.007–1.054)0.010
BMI2.851 (1.209–6.725)0.0171.016 (0.994–1.039)0.160
Waist circumference3.308 (1.412–7.746)0.0061.018 (0.998–1.041)0.116
Duration of diabetes2.383 (1.099–5.169)0.0281.019 (0.995–1.044)0.121
Fasting plasma glucose3.461 (1.421–8.432)0.0061.028 (1.004–1.052)0.021
HbA1c3.463 (1.419–8.449)0.0061.025 (1.001–1.049)0.037
Serum cholesterol3.159 (1.336–7.470)0.0091.026 (1.003–1.049)0.024
Serum triglycerides3.642 (1.536–8.636)0.0031.027 (1.005–1.050)0.018
Microalbuminuria3.17 (1.35–7.4)0.0081.03 (1.004–1.057)0.019
Proteinuria3.207 (1.368–7.520)0.0071.026 (1.003–1.043)0.027
Creatinine2.928 (1.228–6.980)0.0151.024 (1.001–1.046)0.039
CAD3.031 (1.312–7.001)0.0091.021 (0.999–1.044)0.066
  • Logistic regression analysis was done using diabetic retinopathy as the dependent variable and either IMT or AI as the independent variable. The odds ratios were determined after individually adjusting for the variables shown in the first column.