Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of study population

PatientsControl subjectsP
n8663
Age (years)68 ± 666 ± 100.115*
Male67530.079
Cardiovascular disease46
Current smokers16120.575
Drug therapy
ACE inhibitor100
Aspirin42
Statin24
Sulphonylurea100
Metformin43
Glitazone3
BMI (kg/m2)28 ± 427 ± 40.575*
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)139 ± 19131 ± 130.006*
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77 ± 1076 ± 100.578*
Cholesterol (mmol/l)5.0 ± 1.15.3 ± 1.10.065*
HDL (mmol/l)1.3 ± 0.31.6 ± 0.4<0.0001*
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.6 (1.2–2.6)1.5 (0.8–2.2)0.146
HbA1c (%)7.4 (6.6–8.2)5.4 (5.2–5.6)<0.0001
TIMP-2 (ng/ml)143 (120–160)110 (93–143)<0.0001
MMP-9 (ng/ml)65 (48–81)56 (45–75)0.028
TIMP-1 (ng/ml)397 (300–496)280 (225–305)<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD, median (interquartile range), or percent.

  • *

    * Student’s t test

  • χ2 analysis

  • Mann-Whitney U test. To convert cholesterol and HDL from mmol to mg/dl multiply by 38.6; to convert triglycerides multiply by 88.5