Table 2—

RR of type 2 diabetes according to consumption of red meat and total processed meat in the WHS

Frequency of consumption
Quintiles of intake
<1 time/week1 time/week2–4 times/week≥5 times/weekP for trend1 (lowest)2345 (highest)P for trend
Red meat
    Median intake, servings/day0.030.200.421.060.130.400.570.861.42
    Cases/person-years69/22,694110/30,284502/128,806877/145,092225/64,742229/63,204299/69,244322/64,146483/65,541
    Age, energy adjusted1.001.20 (0.89–1.62)1.30 (1.01–1.68)2.03 (1.58–2.60)<0.00011.001.06 (0.88–1.28)1.29 (1.08–1.54)1.53 (1.28–1.83)2.24 (1.88–2.66)<0.0001
    Multivariate model 1*1.001.15 (0.85–1.57)1.08 (0.83–1.40)1.29 (0.99–1.67)0.011.000.89 (0.74–1.08)1.07 (0.90–1.28)1.09 (0.91–1.31)1.28 (1.07–1.53)<0.001
    Multivariate Model 21.001.16 (0.85–1.58)1.09 (0.83–1.43)1.25 (0.94–1.67)0.071.000.90 (0.74–1.10)1.07 (0.88–1.30)1.08 (0.89–1.33)1.24 (1.00–1.54)0.005
Total processed meat
    Median intake, servings/day00.140.430.9200.070.130.210.56
    Cases/person-years555/150,891457/97,859395/60,827136/14,119309/86,704246/64,187172/41,203384/72,400432/59,202
    Age, energy adjusted1.001.27 (1.12–1.44)1.74 (1.52–1.98)2.49 (2.05–3.03)<0.00011.001.07 (0.91–1.27)1.17 (0.97–1.41)1.48 (1.27–1.72)1.98 (1.70–2.30)<0.0001
    Multivariate model 1*1.001.05 (0.92–1.19)1.20 (1.05–1.38)1.43 (1.17–1.75)<0.0011.000.96 (0.81–1.14)0.96 (0.79–1.16)1.11 (0.95–1.29)1.23 (1.05–1.45)0.001
    Multivariate model 21.001.03 (0.91–1.18)1.17 (1.01–1.36)1.38 (1.11–1.71)0.0031.000.96 (0.81–1.14)0.95 (0.78–1.15)1.08 (0.91–1.27)1.19 (1.00–1.42)0.007
  • Data are RR (95% CI).

  • *

    * Multivariate model 1: adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (continuous), total energy intake (quintiles), smoking (current, past, and never), exercise (rarely/never, <1 time/week, 1–3 times/week, and ≥4 times/week), alcohol use (rarely/never, 1–3 drinks/month, 1–6 drinks/week, and ≥1 drink/day), and family history of diabetes (yes/no).

  • Multivariate model 2: model 1 with additional adjustment for dietary intakes of fiber intake (quintiles), glycemic load (quintiles), magnesium (quintiles), and total fat (quintiles).