Table 3—

RR of type 2 diabetes according to subtypes of red meat and processed meat in the WHS

Frequency of consumption
P for trend
<1 time/week1 time/week≥2 times/week
Red meat
    Beef or lamb as a main dish
        Cases/person-years199/52,840482/106,678858/163,127
        Age, energy adjusted1.001.19 (1.01–1.41)1.35 (1.15–1.58)<0.0001
        Multivariate model 1*1.001.07 (0.91–1.27)1.15 (0.98–1.35)0.07
        Multivariate model 21.001.07 (0.90–1.27)1.12 (0.94–1.33)0.22
    Pork as a main dish
        Cases/person-years391/91,050620/135,719544/99,043
        Age, energy adjusted1.001.05 (0.93–1.20)1.23 (1.07–1.41)0.002
        Multivariate model 1*1.000.98 (0.86–1.12)1.10 (0.95–1.26)0.16
        Multivariate model 21.000.97 (0.85–1.11)1.06 (0.92–1.23)0.36
    Beef, pork, or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish
        Cases/person-years163/44,245411/95,201971/184,184
        Age, energy adjusted1.001.17 (0.98–1.41)1.40 (1.18–1.66)<0.0001
        Multivariate model 1*1.001.07 (0.89–1.29)1.15 (0.96–1.37)0.09
        Multivariate model 21.001.06 (0.88–1.28)1.12 (0.93–1.34)0.21
    Hamburgers
    Cases/person-years174/53,936511/123,780867/147,174
        Age, energy adjusted1.001.29 (1.09–1.53)1.81 (1.54–2.14)<0.0001
        Multivariate model 1*1.001.10 (0.92–1.31)1.18 (1.00–1.41)0.04
        Multivariate model 21.001.09 (0.91–1.30)1.15 (0.95–1.38)0.14
Processed meat
    Bacon
        Cases/person-years690/173,840497/96,981364/54,876
        Age, energy adjusted1.001.27 (1.14–1.43)1.59 (1.40–1.81)<0.0001
        Multivariate model 1*1.001.12 (0.99–1.26)1.21 (1.06–1.39)0.004
        Multivariate model 21.001.10 (0.97–1.24)1.17 (1.02–1.35)0.02
    Hot dogs
        Cases/person-years811/202,195522/95,147215/27,736
        Age, energy adjusted1.001.35 (1.21–1.51)1.84 (1.58–2.15)<0.0001
        Multivariate model 1*1.001.08 (0.96–1.21)1.28 (1.09–1.50)0.003
        Multivariate model 21.001.06 (0.94–1.19)1.24 (1.05–1.45)0.02
    Other processed meats
        Cases/person-years580/144,224494/108,859480/72,486
        Age, energy adjusted1.001.13 (1.00–1.27)1.60 (1.41–1.81)<0.0001
        Multivariate model 1*1.000.91 (0.80–1.03)1.12 (0.99–1.28)0.13
        Multivariate model 21.000.89 (0.78–1.01)1.07 (0.93–1.23)0.43
  • Data are RR (95% CI);

  • *

    * Multivariate model 1: adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (continuous), total energy intake (quintiles), smoking (current, past, and never), exercise (rarely/never, <1 time/week, 1–3 times/week, and ≥4 times/week), alcohol use (rarely/never, 1–3 drinks/month, 1–6 drinks/week, and ≥1 drink/day), and family history of diabetes (yes/no).

  • Multivariate model 2: model 1 with additional adjustment for dietary intakes of fiber intake (quintiles), glycemic load (quintiles), magnesium (quintiles), and total fat (quintiles).

  • Other processed meats include sausage, salami, and bologna.