Table 2—

Diabetes self-care and depression*

Self-care activities (past 7 days)nNo major depressionMajor depressionOdds ratio95% CIP
Diet
    Healthy eating once weekly or less8.8%17.2%2.11.59–2.72<0.0001
    Five servings of fruits/vegetables once weekly or less21.1%32.4%1.81.43–2.17<0.0001
    High-fat foods ≥6 times weekly11.9%15.5%1.31.01–1.73<0.04
Exercise
    Physical activity (≥30 min) once weekly or less27.3%44.1%1.91.53–2.27<0.0001
    Specific exercise session once weekly or less45.8%62.1%1.71.43–2.12<0.0001
Smoking
    Yes7.7%16.1%1.91.42–2.51<0.0001
Glucose monitoring (patients on medications)3,439
    Test blood glucose less than once weekly17.8%18.2%1.10.80–1.44NS
    Test blood glucose as recommended less than once weekly24.5%26.7%1.10.89–1.47NS
Foot check (patients on medications)3,439
    Checked feet less than once weekly20.1%19.7%1.00.76–1.29NS
    Checked inside of shoes less than once weekly59.7%61.4%1.10.88–1.36NS
Total3,927536
  • *

    * Percentages are unadjusted;

  • Odds ratios are adjusted for the covariates age, sex, marital status, education, race/ethnicity, medication risk, complications, treatment intensity, clinic, and physician generalized estimating equation (GEE).