Table 1—

Diagnostic criteria for DKA and HHS

DKA
HHS
MildModerateSevere
Plasma glucose (mg/dl)>250>250>250>600
Arterial pH7.25–7.307.00–7.24<7.00>7.30
Serum bicarbonate (mEq/l)15–1810 to <15<10>15
Urine ketones*PositivePositivePositiveSmall
Serum ketones*PositivePositivePositiveSmall
Effective serum osmolality (mOsm/kg)VariableVariableVariable>320
Anion gap>10>12>12Variable
Alteration in sensoria or mental obtundationAlertAlert/drowsyStupor/comaStupor/coma
  • *

    * Nitroprusside reaction method;

  • calculation: 2[measured Na (mEq/l)] + glucose (mg/dl)/18;

  • calculation: (Na+) − (Cl + HCO3) (mEq/l). See text for details.