Table 1—

Characteristics of the study population

U.K.U.S.Total
n316168484
Male sex (%)72.266.770.2
Age (years)61.50 ± 11.5462.56 ± 9.8261.86 ± 10.98
Education (%)*
    Primary4.11.83.4
    Secondary58.541.754.0
    Some college23.111.919.7
    College graduate7.325.614.0
    Postgraduate4.419.58.9
Marital status (has partner)64.973.267.8
Diabetes type (type 1)*34.516.728.3
Diabetes duration17.45 ± 11.6216.95 ± 10.8317.18 ± 11.19
Number of diabetes complications1.57 ± 1.061.54 ± 1.181.56 ± 1.10
Number of concomitant disorders*0.74 ± 0.891.43 ± 1.240.98 ± 1.07
NDS7.33 ± 2.177.63 ± 2.127.43 ± 2.17
VPT*39.30 ± 9.3344.39 ± 9.3341.06 ± 9.63
Active foot ulcers (%)16.414.915.9
NeuroQoL symptom scores:
    Pain1.94 ± 0.912.00 ± 0.751.96 ± 0.86
    Unsteadiness2.26 ± 1.322.60 ± 1.242.38 ± 1.30
    Reduced feeling*2.55 ± 1.483.40 ± 1.312.85 ± 1.48
IPQ-R Episodic-unpredictable timeline2.91 ± 0.882.81 ± 0.892.88 ± 0.93
IPQ-R Treatment control3.12 ± 0.712.99 ± 0.733.07 ± 0.72
NeuroQoL Restrictions in ADL2.39 ± 1.412.75 ± 1.282.51 ± 1.37
NeuroQoL Changes in social self-perception2.04 ± 1.352.31 ± 1.252.14 ± 1.32
HADS5.41 ± 4.264.83 ± 3.655.20 ± 4.06
Antidepressant medications (%)
    Tricyclic antidepressants only11.610.711.3
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors only4.310.76.5
    Both0.91.21.0
  • Data are % or means ± SD. χ2 tests were used to evaluate categorical variables, and independent samples t tests were used to evaluate continuous variables. Significant differences between study sites:

  • *

    * P < 0.001;

  • P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05.