Table 1—

Descriptive characteristics of participants at baseline

CharacteristicNever smokerFormer smokerCurrent smokerP
n424354128
Demographic/behavioral
    Sex
Female293 (69.1)151 (42.7)70 (54.7)<0.001
Male131 (30.9)203 (57.3)58 (45.3)
    Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic African American103 (24.3)96 (27.1)41 (32.0)0.004
White178 (42.0)152 (42.9)32 (25.0)
Hispanic American143 (33.7)106 (29.9)55 (43.0)
Age (years)54.11 ± 8.5556.06 ± 7.9552.52 ± 8.74<0.001
Physical activity (kcal · kg−1 · year−1)14,826.52 ± 2,565.9414,962.77 ± 2,766.8015,436.21 ± 3,092.370.19
Alcohol consumption (g/day)3.36 ± 7.558.32 ± 14.9612.47 ± 17.36<0.001
Anthropometric measures
    BMI (kg/m2)28.85 ± 5.9728.21 ± 5.0027.59 ± 5.880.06
    Waist circumference (cm)89.35 ± 13.2591.53 ± 11.4689.87 ± 14.010.06
Metabolic syndrome risk factors
    SI (10−4 · min−1 · μU−1 · ml−1)2.10 ± 1.912.23 ± 2.092.41 ± 2.220.32
    Acute insulin response (pmol · ml−1 · min−1)471.86 ± 529.84492.71 ± 445.63532.23 ± 460.440.47
    Glucose tolerance
NGT279 (65.8)236 (66.7)88 (68.8)0.82
IGT145 (34.2)118 (33.3)40 (31.3)
    HDL (mg/dl)47.22 ± 14.5447.00 ± 15.7644.93 ± 15.000.31
    Triglycerides (mg/dl)129.31 ± 83.25136.31 ± 85.34138.49 ± 96.610.41
    Hypertension
No295 (69.6)243 (68.6)101 (78.9)0.07
Yes129 (30.4)111 (31.4)27 (21.1)
    Diabetes at 5 years
No364 (85.8)298 (84.2)96 (75.0)0.01
Yes60 (14.2)56 (15.8)32 (25.0)
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD.