Table 3—

Independent predictors of longitudinal changes in QoL scores: results of multilevel analyses

CovariatesSF-36
SF-36 summary scores
CES-DSLQ
PFRPBPGHVTSFREMHPCSMCS
No ED0.44 (0.66)0.75 (0.46)0.16 (0.88)−0.75 (0.45)−0.61 (0.54)2.00 (0.05)1.08 (0.28)0.36 (0.72)−1.22 (0.22)1.48 (0.14)−0.81 (0.42)−0.06 (0.95)
ED at baseline−2.22 (0.03)−0.96 (0.34)−0.83 (0.41)−0.54 (0.59)−1.20 (0.23)−0.55 (0.58)−0.85 (0.40)−0.20 (0.84)−1.21 (0.22)−0.46 (0.65)0.86 (0.39)2.41 (0.02)
Incident ED−3.36 (0.0008)−1.24 (0.22)−1.11 (0.27)−2.43 (0.02)−1.14 (0.25)−2.07 (0.04)−1.24 (0.21)−1.45 (0.15)−2.08 (0.04)−1.81 (0.07)3.22 (0.001)−8.00 (<0.0001)
Age−8.73 (<0.0001)−8.72 (<0.0001)−3.28 (0.001)0.98 (0.33)2.93 (0.003)0.70 (0.48)−4.26 (<0.0001)4.55 (<0.0001)−8.02 (<0.0001)4.68 (<0.0001)−1.09 (0.28)0.03 (0.97)
Marital status (single/divorced/ widowed vs. married)−0.95 (0.34)−2.07 (0.04)−1.73 (0.08)−2.51 (0.01)−1.77 (0.08)−1.86 (0.06)−2.82 (0.005)−1.23 (0.22)−1.52 (0.13)−1.90 (0.06)4.70 (<0.0001)−0.35 (0.73)
School education (≤5 years vs. >5 years)−6.48 (<0.0001)−4.26 (<0.0001)−4.68 (<0.0001)−2.76 (0.006)−1.85 (0.06)−0.69 (0.49)−2.70 (0.007)−0.93 (0.35)−5.71 (<0.0001)0.07 (0.94)1.01 (0.31)1.01 (0.31)
Diabetes duration0.66 (0.51)0.53 (0.60)−1.62 (0.11)−4.06 (<0.0001)−2.31 (0.02)−2.47 (0.01)1.32 (0.19)−1.49 (0.14)−1.17 (0.24)−1.18 (0.24)0.44 (0.66)−3.22 (0.001)
Treatment
Insulin vs. diet/OA−3.33 (0.0009)−2.05 (0.04)−0.07 (0.95)−3.47 (0.0005)−1.23 (0.22)−2.22 (0.03)−0.95 (0.34)−1.20 (0.23)−2.83 (0.005)−0.72 (0.47)0.83 (0.41)−2.63 (0.009)
OA + insulin vs. diet/OA−0.88 (0.38)−2.09 (0.04)−2.11 (0.03)−1.75 (0.08)−0.09 (0.92)−1.76 (0.08)−1.45 (0.15)−0.38 (0.70)−2.79 (0.0005)−0.71 (0.48)1.47 (0.14)0.16 (0.87)
TIBI−14.12 (<0.0001)−11.12 (<0.0001)−16.32 (<0.0001)−11.33 (<0.0001)−15.35 (<0.0001)−11.21 (<0.0001)−10.88 (<0.0001)−11.61 (<0.0001)−16.38 (<0.0001)−10.44 (<0.0001)11.06 (<0.0001)−8.78 (<0.0001)
CVD at baseline−5.81 (<0.0001)−4.00 (<0.0001)−1.87 (0.06)−2.97 (0.003)−3.76 (0.0002)−1.87 (0.06)−2.87 (0.0004)−2.40 (0.02)−5.24 (<0.0001)−1.55 (0.12)1.48 (0.14)−1.84 (0.07)
CVD at follow-up−1.86 (0.06)−2.22 (0.03)−1.48 (0.14)−2.73 (0.006)0.25 (0.81)−1.18 (0.24)−1.25 (0.21)1.34 (0.18)−3.30 (0.001)0.26 (0.80)−0.36 (0.72)−0.23 (0.82)
  • Data are standardized β (P value). Standardized β parameters indicate the changes over time in QoL measures with respect to baseline. Positive standardized β parameters indicate improvement for SF-36 dimensions and Sexual Life Questionnaire (SLQ) and deterioration for CES-D score; negative standardized β parameters indicate deterioration for SF-36 dimensions and SLQ and improvement for CES-D score. The impact of ED is partitioned in two components: the first indicates the changes over time in patients with ED at baseline; the second shows the average changes before to after the development of ED. BP, bodily pain; GH, general health perception; MCS, mental component summary; MH, mental health; OA, oral agent; PCS, physical component summary; PF, physical functioning; RE, role limitations caused by emotional health problems; RP, role limitations caused by physical health problems; SF, social functioning; VT, vitality.