Table 1—

Patient characteristics and the performance of mammography and Pap smears

Eligible for mammography (n = 278)
Eligible for Pap (n = 314)
ScreenedNot screenedPScreenedNot screenedP
n203 (73)75 (27)175 (56)139 (44)
Age (years)58 ± 0.658 ± 0.90.8754 ± 0.958 ± 0.9<0.001
White race74680.3271740.60
Education0.930.08
    Some high school17161120
    High school/GED32332833
    Some college31333727
    ≥4 years of college20182420
Annual income<0.001<0.001
    <$15,00022441838
    $15,000–39,00039243631
    $40,000–75,00026162719
    >$75,00013161912
Self-reported health status0.11<0.001
    Excellent3433
    Very good20122414
    Good38353742
    Fair31313127
    Poor818515
Diabetes duration (years)15 ± 0.816 ± 1.60.7814 ± 0.916 ± 0.90.20
    Duration <10 years45474942
    Duration ≥10 years55535158
Diabetes treatment0.250.33
    Diet5031
    Oral medication51524950
    Insulin25293328
    Insulin + oral medication19191420
Charlson comorbidity index*2.2 ± 0.12.7 ± 0.20.032.1 ± 0.12.6 ± 0.20.03
    0–273567262
    3–419342326
    >4810513
Diabetes process/quality of care5.3 ± 0.14.9 ± 0.10.045.4 ± 0.15.0 ± 0.1<0.02
    Dilated retinal exam83670.00887720.003
    Urine protein screen76800.5380750.41
    Foot exam84860.6986860.96
    Lipid panel73520.00573590.02
    HbA1c92790.00694830.002
    Aspirin use58710.0852650.04
    Influenza vaccination66560.1766610.43
Medicaid insurance2110.004360.21
Gynecologist visit1470.10154<0.001
Total outpatient visits19 ± 0.818 ± 1.00.7119 ± 0.918 ± 0.80.65
    1–1023242225
    11–2041364240
    >2036403635
  • Data are percent, n (%), or means ± SE. Screened for mammography means the performance of one mammography over a 2-year period; screened for Pap smear means the performance of one Pap smear over a 3-year period.

  • *

    * Charlson comorbidity index is based on the mean number of comorbid diseases per patient; scores range from 0 to 13 (0 = no; 1–2 = low; 3–4 = medium; and ≥5 = high comorbidity index).