Table 2—

Bivariate and multivariate associations among patient and provider factors and the performance of mammography

Bivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
Patient factors
    Age (ref. = 40–49 years)NI
        50–591.09 (0.78–1.52)
        60–701.19 (0.61–2.31)
    Nonwhite race (ref. = white)0.75 (0.42–1.34)NI
    Education (ref. = <high school)NI
        High school/GED1.01 (0.78–1.33)
        Some college1.02 (0.61–1.77)
        ≥4 years of college1.03 (0.47–2.35)
    Income (ref. = <$15,000)*
        $15,000–39,0001.30 (1.01–1.71)1.00 (0.70–1.44)
        $40,000–75,0001.69 (1.02–2.92)1.02 (0.49–2.07)
        >$75,0002.20 (1.03–5.00)1.03 (0.34–2.99)
    Self reported health status (ref. = excellent)*
        Very good0.75 (0.57–0.96)0.69 (0.48–0.99)
        Good0.56 (0.32–0.92)0.48 (0.23–0.98)
        Fair0.42 (0.19–0.88)0.33 (0.11–0.97)
        Poor0.32 (0.11–0.85)0.23 (0.05–0.96)
    Diabetes duration (ref. = <10 years)1.07 (0.63–1.83)NI
    Diabetes treatment (ref. = diet)NI
        Oral medication0.88 (0.63–1.21)
        Insulin0.77 (0.40–1.46)
        Insulin + oral medication0.68 (0.25–1.77)
    Charlson comorbidity score (ref. = 0–2)*
        3–40.82 (0.68–0.98)0.92 (0.72–1.16)
        >40.67 (0.46–0.96)0.85 (0.52–1.35)
    Diabetes process/quality of care (continuous)*1.25 (1.01–1.57)1.33 (1.05–1.71)
    Insurance type (ref. = Medicaid)*4.73 (1.49–8.80)3.86 (1.01–8.86)
    Any visit to a gynecologist (ref. = 0)2.24 (0.83–6.04)NI
    Total outpatient visits (ref. = 1–10)NI
        11–200.96 (0.67–1.35)
        >200.92 (0.45–1.82)
Provider factors
    Age (continuous)*0.97 (0.95–0.99)0.97 (0.93–1.15)
    Sex (ref. = male)*1.36 (1.29–2.33)1.37 (0.60–3.14)
    Specialty (ref. = family/general practice)1.34 (0.78–2.29)NI
    Years of practice (continuous)*0.97 (0.95–0.99)0.95 (0.84–1.06)
  • Data are OR (95% CI).

  • *

    * Statistically significant association;

  • statistically significant multivariate association. NI, not included in multivariate analysis because variable was not significant in bivariate analysis.