Table 1—

Depression and demographic characteristics by depression grouping

VariablesTotal sampleNo depressionMinor depressionMajor depressionOverall test statistics
Minor vs. none
Major vs. none
Major vs. minor
χ2 (df = 2)χ2 (df = 1)χ2 (df = 1)χ2 (df = 1)
n4,1543,303 (79.5)354 (8.5)497 (12.0)
Female2,023 (48.7)1,555 (47.1)178 (50.3)290 (58.4)<0.00010.2512<0.00010.0197
High school or less1,040 (25.0)794 (24.0)112 (31.6)134 (27.0)0.00560.00160.13800.1233
Unmarried and not living as married1,396 (33.7)1,061 (32.2)128 (36.2)207 (41.7)0.00010.1282<0.00010.1010
Employment (full or part time)1,661 (41.1)1,323 (41.0)125 (36.8)213 (45.0)0.09200.13170.09530.0183
Race
    Caucasian3,294 (79.3)2,639 (79.9)262 (74.0)393 (79.1)0.00210.01360.0072
    African American350 (8.4)265 (8.0)35 (9.9)50 (10.1)0.1077
    Asian393 (9.5)320 (9.7)40 (11.3)33 (6.6)
    Other117 (2.8)79 (2.4)17 (4.8)21 (4.2)
Age (years)64.2 ± 12.664.8 ± 12.364.7 ± 13.359.5 (13.0)<0.00010.8580<0.0001<0.0001
RxRisk score0.00830.01720.0409
    <1,300798 (19.2)628 (19.0)74 (20.9)96 (19.3)
    1,300 to 2,5991,066 (25.7)874 (26.5)69 (19.5)123 (24.8)0.2637
    2,600 to 4,3991,122 (27.0)910 (27.6)96 (27.1)116 (23.3)
    ≥4,4001,168 (28.1)891 (27.0)115 (32.5)162 (32.6)
Diabetes complications<0.00010.0001<0.0001
    <22,638 (63.5)2,166 (65.6)196 (55.4)276 (55.5)0.9617
    ≥21,516 (36.5)1,137 (34.4)158 (44.6)221 (44.5)
A1C level groups<0.00010.2033<0.0001
    <8.00%2,607 (63.8)2,129 (65.5)216 (62.1)262 (54.0)0.0205
    ≥8.00%1,477 (36.2)1,122 (34.5)132 (37.9)223 (46.0)
BMI2,031 (49.6)1,714 (52.6)157 (45.1)160 (32.7)<0.00010.0076<0.00010.0003
    ≤30.0 kg/m22,062 (50.4)1,542 (47.4)191 (54.9)329 (67.3)
    >30.0 kg/m2
Smoking currently345 (8.4)232 (7.1)37 (10.6)76 (15.6)<0.00010.0182<0.00010.0394
Treatment intensity
    None or diet1,104 (26.6)931 (28.2)81 (22.9)92 (18.5)<0.00010.0011<0.00010.0475
    Oral hypoglycemic1,924 (46.3)1,567 (47.4)156 (44.1)201 (40.4)
    Insulin or insulin + oral hypoglycemic1,126 (27.1)805 (24.4)117 (33.1)204 (41.1)
Exercise
    ≤1 day per week1,206 (29.5)841 (25.9)147 (42.0)218 (44.7)<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.4417
    2–7 days per week2,886 (70.5)2,413 (74.2)203 (58.0)270 (55.3)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%), unless otherwise indicated.