Table 1—

Respondent characteristics for providers

Physicians
Nurses
nMeans ± SD or %nMeans ± SD or %
Sex2,6811,109
    Men1,94472.5544.9
    Women73727.51,05595.1
Age2,67646.16 ± 9.781,09241.00 ± 8.60
Years in practice2,58216.05 ± 9.571,10710.91 ± 7.43
Professional role
    Specialist*2,68122.91,10953.1
    Opinion leader2,6800.22 ± 0.281,1090.26 ± 0.26
Percent with type 2 diabetes2,68167.12 ± 17.771,10962.94 ± 20.31
Practice location2,6691,109
    Rural38814.518917.1
    Suburban42215.715614.1
    Small urban48518.118016.3
    Large urban1,37451.258252.6
Patient adherence to recommendations§
    Medication2,6553.44 ± 0.561,0663.60 ± 0.47
    Appointments2,5403.43 ± 0.571,0333.43 ± 0.59
    SMBG2,6073.01 ± 0.711,0683.10 ± 0.68
    Diet2,6512.83 ± 0.591,0842.92 ± 0.57
    Exercise2,6502.65 ± 0.651,0762.64 ± 0.65
Patient psychological problems2,61223.94 ± 16.741,04030.97 ± 27.55
Patient attitudes toward insulin
    Worry2,67060.17 ± 30.561,09262.40 ± 30.32
    Self-blame2,67036.04 ± 29.531,07738.90 ± 32.05
Attitudes toward insulin#
    Efficacy2,5663.60 ± 1.631,0113.67 ± 1.60
    Cost a barrier2,6492.80 ± 1.671,0632.99 ± 1.69
Delay oral medication**2,6543.16 ± 1.731,0483.45 ± 1.75
Delay insulin††2,6513.76 ± 1.721,0573.66 ± 1.80
  • *

    * For India, approximately half of the physicians (rather than the quota of 20%) were classified as diabetes specialists because those who treated >50 diabetes patients a month, initiated insulin, and accepted diabetes referrals from other physicians were classified as specialists in India.

  • Six items indicating how often the respondent spoke at diabetes meetings or wrote for audiences of patients or providers (no or seldom = 0, sometimes or often = 1; measure = mean of item scores [α reliability = 0.72 for physicians, 0.66 for nurses]).

  • Percent of diabetic patients treated by provider who have type 2 diabetes.

  • §

    § Ratings of how well provider’s typical type 2 diabetic patient adhered to treatment recommendations (never = 1 to completely = 4).

  • Percentage of type 2 diabetic patients suffering from stress, anxiety, depression, denial, and burnout (0–100; measure = mean of item scores [α reliability = 0.82 for physicians and nurses]).

  • Percentage of type 2 diabetic patients who would worry about starting insulin therapy or think that starting insulin means not having followed treatment recommendations properly (none or few = 0, less than half = 33.3, more than half = 66.7, most or all = 100).

  • #

    # Earlier introduction of insulin would reduce long-term costs of diabetes care; cost of insulin therapy is a barrier to effective management (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 6).

  • **

    ** Prefer to delay initiation of oral hypoglycemic therapy until it is absolutely necessary (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 6).

  • ††

    †† Prefer to delay initiation of insulin therapy until it is absolutely necessary (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 6).