Table 2—

Respondent characteristics for patients

nMeans ± SD or %
Sex2,056
    Men96947.0%
    Women1,08752.7%
Age (years)2,06059.16 ± 11.88
Age education completed1,983
    ≤1440719.7%
    15–1998547.8%
    ≥2059128.7%
Residential location2,055
    Rural40919.9%
    Suburban41920.3%
    Urban37718.3%
    Large urban85041.2%
Duration of diabetes (years)2,0588.25 ± 7.69
Complications2,0611.34 ± 0.79
Adherence to recommendations*
    Medication1,8253.32 ± 1.15
    Appointments1,8603.42 ± 0.96
    SMBG1,7133.12 ± 1.12
    Diet2,0123.08 ± 1.12
    Exercise1,9622.96 ± 0.99
Perceived control2,0482.54 ± 1.16
Diabetes distress2,0611.94 ± 0.70
Relationship with provider§2,0553.30 ± 0.67
Attitudes toward insulin initiation
    Efficacy1,6101.95 ± 1.01
    Self-blame1,8182.54 ± 1.16
  • *

    * Success following treatment recommendations (never = 1 to completely = 4).

  • Extent diabetes is in control (not at all = 1 to to a great extent = 4).

  • Four items: stressed because of diabetes, constant fear diabetes is getting worse, coping getting more difficult, and burned out by diabetes (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 4; measure = mean of all items [α reliability = 0.68]).

  • §

    § Three items: fully involved in treatment decisions, doctor spends enough time with me, and good relationship with diabetes care providers (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 4; measure = mean of all items [α reliability = 0.65]).

  • Taking insulin will help me manage diabetes better; starting insulin means not having followed treatment recommendations properly (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 4).