Table 4—

Regression analysis of patient attitudes about initiating insulin treatment

VariableInsulin efficacy
Self-blame
Unstandardized coefficientStandardized coefficientUnstandardized coefficientStandardized coefficient
Australia−0.113*−0.035−0.421−0.112
France0.0640.0160.1100.024
Germany0.4180.103−0.477−0.102
India0.2760.093−0.443−0.125
Japan0.3610.1200.186§0.055
Netherlands0.0180.005−0.560−0.123
Poland0.0190.005−0.243§−0.052
Scandinavia0.2480.065−0.185−0.043
Spain0.6050.159−0.091−0.022
U.K.0.1050.0290.1020.026
Population density0.0180.021−0.062−0.063
Women−0.020−0.010−0.028−0.012
Age−0.006−0.068−0.003*−0.034
Duration of diabetes−0.002−0.016−0.010−0.066
Complications0.049*0.0400.0080.004
Relationship with provider−0.080−0.053NSNS
Perceived control−0.154−0.105NSNS
Exercise adherenceNSNS−0.076−0.063
SMBG adherence0.0550.056NSNS
Diabetes distress0.2640.1860.2810.171
Model R20.1380.092
  • Regression coefficients not shown for education, which was not significantly related to insulin attitudes. The U.S. is the reference category for countries; country coefficients are interpreted as differences from the U.S. Mean substitution used for missing values.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 at entry;

  • P < 0.001;

  • P < 0.01;

  • §

    § P < 0.10;

  • P < 0.05. NS, not significant.