Table 1

Characteristics for adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Lean control subjects
(n = 13)Adolescents with type 1 diabetes
(n = 69)P value
Age (years)15.1 ± 2.215.5 ± 2.20.55
Type 1 diabetes duration (months)75 ± 46
Ethnicity (%)0.38a
 Non-Hispanic white8386
 Hispanic07
 Black173
 Other04
Tanner stage (%)0.74a
 Tanner 284
 Tanner 3813
 Tanner 43826
 Tanner 54657
BMI (kg/m2)20.6 ± 2.422.9 ± 4.70.09
GIR20.3 ± 4.111.7 ± 4.3<0.0001
HbA1c (%)5.0 ± 0.38.5 ± 1.4<0.0001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)31.0 ± 3.369.0 ± 15.3<0.0001
SBP (mmHg)109 ± 6116 ± 120.06
DBP (mmHg)62 ± 669 ± 80.003
LDL-C (mg/dL)81 ± 2582 ± 240.84
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)0.75 ± 0.150.68 ± 0.150.14
Serum cystatin C (mg/dL)1.00 ± 0.170.94 ± 0.160.18
eGFR by Bouvet equation (mL/min/1.73 m2)89 ± 14101 ± 190.03
ACRb (mg/g)7.3 (5.1–9.2)6.7 (4.4–12.9)0.48
Mean habitual exercise (METS)58 ± 1064 ± 130.15
VO2peak/kg (mL/kg ⋅ min)36.2 ± 7.931.5 ± 6.30.046
VO2peak/lean kg (mL/lean kg ⋅ min)51.0 ± 8.643.7 ± 7.00.007
  • Data are reported as LSMs ± SE, unless otherwise indicated. METS, metabolic equivalents.

  • aχ2 test.

  • bData are reported as the median (Q25–Q75).