Table 1—

Patients’ characteristics according to the presence/development of ED

CharacteristicsED
P*P
NoAt baselineIncident
n764 (52.5)500 (34.3)192 (13.2)
Age (years)58.9 ± 10.465.0 ± 8.264.3 ± 7.8<0.00010.17
School education ≤5 years39.130.840.60.710.01
Income0.440.54
    <€6.0006.27.47.1
    €6–12.00031.231.035.5
    >€12.00062.661.657.4
Smoking0.130.55
    No26.021.120.4
    Yes26.119.823.7
    Ex47.959.155.9
BMI (kg/m2)27.5 ± 3.727.3 ± 7.227.3 ± 7.30.570.98
Diabetes duration (years)8.6 ± 7.612.5 ± 9.311.7 ± 9.0<0.00010.38
Diabetes treatment0.040.01
    Diet alone23.19.318.2
    Oral agents64.264.461.5
    Insulin7.915.911.5
    Insulin + oral agents4.810.48.9
HbA1c (%)6.9 ± 1.57.2 ± 1.67.3 ± 1.70.0040.60
Retinopathy13.928.419.40.070.02
Neuropathy5.115.714.3<0.00010.66
Micro- or macroalbuminuria19.729.729.00.020.89
Hypertension39.350.250.00.0070.96
Dyslipidemia20.020.619.30.810.70
Peripheral vascular disease3.45.44.20.610.51
CVD12.824.819.80.010.16
TIBI9.8 ± 9.815.4 ± 12.412.3 ± 10.60.00060.005
  • Data are n (%), %, or means ± SD. P values refer to χ2 for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables.

  • *

    * Incident ED versus no ED.

  • Incident ED versus ED at baseline.