Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the study subjects

Control subjectsType 1 diabetic subjectsP
n2367
Sex (male/female)10/1322/45NS*
Age (years)24.9 ± 1.424.0 ± 4.4NS
Duration of diabetes (years)14.5 ± 6.2
Smoking (yes/no)3/209/58NS*
BMI (kg/m2)20.4 ± 2.022.2 ± 2.50.0048
SBP (mmHg)113 ± 12117 ± 13NS
DBP (mmHg)66 ± 873 ± 90.0049
A1C (%)4.64 ± 0.317.85 ± 1.35<0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.69 ± 0.754.84 ± 0.75NS
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.71 ± 0.341.86 ± 0.37NS
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.76 ± 0.271.10 ± 0.720.0353
esRAGE (ng/ml)0.436 ± 0.1210.266 ± 0.089<0.0001
hs-CRP (mg/l)0.376 ± 0.744 (0.05–3.4)1.064 ± 1.929 (0.05–11.9)0.0011
Urinary albumin excretion (mg/day)17.5 ± 46.6
Retinopathy (NDR/BDR/PDR)43/20/4
IMT (mm)0.58 ± 0.060.63 ± 0.110.0396
  • Data are means ± SD or means ± SD (range) unless otherwise indicated. Student’s t test was performed as indicated.

  • *

    * χ2 test,

  • Mann-Whitney U test. BDR, background diabetic retinopathy; NDR, no diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy.