Table 1—

Characteristics of 43,390 drug exposure contributions (intervals*) at the onset of each drug exposure

Drug-freeSU monotherapyMetformin monotherapyInsulin monotherapyOther monotherapiesOHA combination therapyInsulin combination therapyTriple therapyTotal
n21,245 (49.0)11,350 (26.2)4,579 (10.6)861 (2.0)242 (0.6)4,107 (9.5)456 (1.1)550 (1.3)43,390 (100)
Follow-up time (days)568 ± 641 (323)642 ± 620 (445)552 ± 570 (359)662 ± 615 (467)318 ± 380 (146)499 ± 534 (300)165 ± 299 (31)199 ± 303 (57)571 ± 616 (349)
Men11,516 (54.2)5,953 (52.5)2,206 (48.2)404 (46.9)122 (50.4)1,947 (47.4)216 (47.4)238 (43.3)22,602 (52.1)
Age at the onset of interval (years)63 ± 12.564 ± 12.059 ± 11.458 ± 12.760 ± 10.361 ± 11.357 ± 12.559 ± 10.862 ± 12.3
Having ever smoked6,595 (31.0)3,397 (29.9)1,544 (33.7)303 (35.2)84 (34.7)1,355 (33.0)172 (37.7)195 (35.5)13,645 (31.5)
BMI ≥30 kg/m2 or obesity diagnosis5,702 (26.8)2,422 (21.3)2,197 (48.0)160 (18.6)89 (36.8)1,469 (35.8)102 (22.4)187 (34.0)12,328 (28.4)
History
    Edema2,197 (10.3)1,219 (10.7)620 (13.5)116 (13.5)29 (12.0)493 (12.0)55 (12.1)64 (11.6)4,793 (11.1)
    Myocardial infarction1,203 (5.7)667 (5.9)216 (4.7)44 (5.1)10 (4.1)227 (5.5)27 (5.9)30 (5.5)2,424 (5.6)
    Valvular heart disease137 (0.6)84 (0.7)26 (0.6)6 (0.7)1 (0.4)27 (0.7)2 (0.4)2 (0.4)285 (0.7)
    Angina pectoris2,280 (10.7)1,278 (11.3)502 (11.0)101 (11.7)41 (16.9)475 (11.6)51 (11.2)63 (11.5)4,791 (11.0)
    Coronary interventional procedures277 (1.3)176 (1.6)68 (1.5)23 (2.7)6 (2.5)71 (1.7)7 (1.5)10 (1.8)638 (1.5)
    Hypertension7,090 (33.4)3,791 (33.4)1,786 (39.0)241 (28.0)83 (34.3)1,611 (39.2)148 (32.5)225 (40.9)14,975 (34.5)
    Athrosclerotic vascular disease643 (3.0)432 (3.8)122 (2.7)31 (3.6)7 (2.9)155 (3.8)17 (3.7)18 (3.3)1,425 (3.3)
    Renal insufficiency68 (0.3)47 (0.4)21 (0.5)6 (0.7)1 (0.4)26 (0.6)3 (0.7)4 (0.7)176 (0.4)
Interval where a given therapy was prescribed*
    121,245 (100)3,365 (29.7)983 (21.5)2 (0.2)40 (16.5)54 (1.3)1 (0.2)0 (0)25,690 (59.2)
    207,147 (63.0)2,979 (65.1)148 (17.2)150 (62.0)1,245 (30.3)75 (16.5)8 (1.5)11,752 (27.1)
    30333 (2.9)300 (6.6)192 (22.3)22 (9.1)2,559 (62.3)171 (37.5)162 (29.5)3,739 (8.6)
    40457 (4.0)292 (6.4)257 (29.9)23 (9.5)108 (2.6)91 (20.0)316 (57.5)1,544 (3.6)
    5024 (0.2)15 (0.3)156 (18.1)4 (1.7)139 (3.4)75 (16.5)37 (6.7)450 (1.0)
    6024 (0.2)8 (0.2)72 (8.4)2 (0.8)0 (0)27 (5.9)27 (4.9)160 (0.4)
    700 (0)1 (0.0)27 (3.1)0 (0)2 (0.1)16 (3.5)0 (0)46 (0.1)
    800 (0)1 (0.0)7 (0.8)1 (0.4)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)9 (0.0)
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or means ± SD (median).

  • *

    * A drug exposure interval was used as a unit of observation, i.e. 43,390 intervals of exposure to the applicable sequences of treatments for 25,690 patients. An interval was defined as the duration from the onset of a drug exposure to the onset of a next drug exposure or until censored.

  • These variables were ascertained only at the time of diabetes diagnosis and remained fixed throughout the observation period.