Table 3—

HRs and 95% CIs of risk indicators of heart failure by time since diabetes diagnosis and by drug exposure (model 2)

First year (≤1 year)Second year (1< ∼ ≤2 years)Beyond second year (>2 years)Total (entire period)
Any drug use (versus drug-free)*4.75 (3.57–6.33)1.21 (0.82–1.78)0.89 (0.70–1.14)1.54 (1.31–1.80)
Men1.31 (1.04–1.64)0.99 (0.77–1.27)1.06 (0.92–1.22)1.10 (0.99–1.23)
Baseline ever smoked (versus never smoked)0.86 (0.66–1.12)1.33 (1.01–1.74)1.45 (1.24–1.70)1.27 (1.12–1.43)
Baseline hypertension1.07 (0.85–1.35)0.98 (0.76–1.27)0.94 (0.81–1.08)0.97 (0.87–1.08)
Baseline obesity status0.82 (0.60–1.11)0.74 (0.53–1.04)1.29 (1.09–1.53)1.06 (0.93–1.22)
Age in 10 years*2.07 (1.85–2.31)1.99 (1.75–2.25)2.19 (2.03–2.36)2.12 (2.00–2.24)
History of myocardial infarction*2.96 (2.15–4.09)2.82 (1.98–4.03)2.24 (1.80–2.80)2.51 (2.14–2.96)
History of valvular disease*1.56 (0.58–4.20)3.63 (1.70–7.74)2.30 (1.41–3.75)2.36 (1.61–3.44)
History of angina pectoris*1.28 (0.95–1.72)1.48 (1.08–2.03)1.68 (1.39–2.02)1.52 (1.32–1.76)
History of coronary interventional procedure*1.57 (0.87–2.84)1.38 (0.70–2.72)1.49 (0.95–2.35)1.52 (1.10–2.09)
History of atherosclerotic vascular disease*1.82 (1.23–2.71)1.80 (1.15–2.80)1.14 (0.82–1.57)1.45 (1.16–1.80)
Interval 2 or higher*0.90 (0.69–1.17)1.18 (0.79–1.75)0.84 (0.65–1.09)0.96 (0.81–1.14
Interval 3 or higher*0.63 (0.29–1.36)1.44 (0.86–2.40)1.11 (0.84–1.48)1.14 (0.90–1.44)
Interval 4 or higher*1.72 (0.44–6.66)0.33 (0.08–1.43)1.15 (0.74–1.79)1.02 (0.69–1.52)
Interval 5 or higher*3.14 (0.32–30.43)3.94 (0.55–28.21)0.84 (0.40–1.74)1.05 (0.55–2.01)
Duration of diabetes
    0.5–1.0 year (vs. 0–0.5 years)*1.16 (0.65–2.05)
    1.5–2.0 years (vs. 0.1–1.5 years)*1.02 (0.40–2.58)
    2.5–3.0 years (vs. 0.2–2.5 years)*0.93 (0.60–1.44)
    3.0–4.0 years (vs. 0.2–2.5 years)*0.92 (0.63–1.34)
    4.0–5.0 years (vs. 0.2–2.5 years)*0.92 (0.57–1.49)
    5.0–7.0 years (vs. 0.2–2.5 years)*0.59 (0.30–1.15)
    >7 years (vs. 0.2–2.5 years)*0.96 (0.24–3.89)
    >1 year (vs. 0–0.5 years)*0.86 (0.67–1.11)
    >2 years (vs. 0–0.5 years)*0.89 (0.71–1.12)
  • Data are HR (95% CI).

  • *

    * Time-dependent variables ascertained at the onset of each interval. Bold: 95% CIs did not include 1.