Table 2—

Association of digestible carbohydrate intake, fiber, glycemic index, and glycemic load with measures of SI, insulin secretion, and adiposity, IRAS Exam I, 1992–1994 (n = 979)

Digestible carbohydrate
Fiber
Glycemic index
Glycemic load
Modelβ (SE)*Pβ (SE)*Pβ (SE)*Pβ (SE)*P
SI (min−1 · μU−1 · mL−1 · 10−4)
    1−0.0048 (0.0019)0.010−0.0068 (0.0217)0.754−0.0048 (0.0030)0.111−0.0058 (0.0021)0.007
    2−0.0039 (0.0020)0.0550.0288 (0.0229)0.210−0.0048 (0.0033)0.138−0.0051 (0.0024)0.032
    30.0002 (0.0028)0.9420.1250 (0.0306)<0.001−0.0034 (0.0033)0.296−0.0005 (0.0035)0.881
Fasting insulin (pmol/ml)
    10.0097 (0.0021)<0.0010.0641 (0.0253)0.0120.0047 (0.0035)0.1810.0113 (0.0025)<0.001
    20.0086 (0.0024)<0.0010.0327 (0.0271)0.2270.0034 (0.0039)0.3780.0105 (0.0028)<0.001
    30.0030 (0.0033)0.360−0.0815 (0.0361)0.0240.0008 (0.0039)0.8420.0038 (0.0041)0.348
AIR (μU · ml−1 · min−1)
    10.0049 (0.0024)0.0410.0056 (0.0279)0.8420.0119 (0.0038)0.0020.0067 (0.0027)0.015
    20.0009 (0.0026)0.736−0.0078 (0.0291)0.7890.0013 (0.0041)0.7600.0011 (0.0030)0.709
    3−0.0003 (0.0036)0.944−0.0317 (0.0393)0.4200.0009 (0.0042)0.827−0.0002 (0.0045)0.968
Disposition index
    10.0001 (0.0027)0.971−0.0013 (0.0319)0.9690.0071 (0.0044)0.1070.0008 (0.0032)0.790
    2−0.0030 (0.0029)0.3100.0210 (0.0336)0.533−0.0036 (0.0048)0.456−0.0040 (0.0035)0.256
    3−0.00005 (0.0042)0.9900.0933 (0.0452)0.039−0.0025 (0.0048)0.602−0.0007 (0.0051)0.891
BMI (kg/m2)
    10.0618 (0.0194)0.0010.3851 (0.2273)0.091−0.0063 (0.0315)0.8410.0676 (0.0224)0.003
    20.0773 (0.0211)<0.0010.3415 (0.2416)0.1580.0279 (0.0344)0.4180.0947 (0.0250)<0.001
    30.0004 (0.0295)0.990−0.7954 (0.3212)0.013−0.0009 (0.0344)0.978−0.0006 (0.0364)0.988
Waist (cm)
    10.2880 (0.0433)<0.0011.8627 (0.5148)<0.0010.2650 (0.0713)<0.0010.3540 (0.0500)<0.001
    20.1889 (0.0463)<0.0010.7238 (0.5320)0.1740.1148 (0.0757)0.1300.2378 (0.0550)<0.001
    30.0449 (0.0650)0.490−1.8755 (0.7067)0.0080.0542 (0.0758)0.4750.0708 (0.0803)0.378
  • *

    * β values are shown for lnSI, ln fasting insulin, lnAIR, ln disposition index, BMI, and waist circumference for a 10-unit increase in digestible carbohydrate intake, fiber intake, and glycemic load and for a 1-unit increase in glycemic index. Model 1: Unadjusted. Model 2: Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity/clinic, family history of diabetes, current smoking status, and total energy expenditure. Model 3: Model 2 further adjusted for energy intake from noncarbohydrates by energy partition method.

  • Model 3 for fiber: Model 2 further adjusted for total energy intake.