Table 3—

Intermediate outcomes of care and intensity of medication management if inadequate control*

A1C levelFor A1C ≥8%, use of insulin or ≥2 oral antidiabetic agentsLDL level (mean mg/dl)For LDL ≥130 mg/dl, use of lipid-lowering agentsBlood pressure ≥140/90 mmHgFor SBP ≥140 md/dl, use of ≥2 antihypertensive agents
Race/ethnicity
    White (reference group)7.777.311151.444.153.7
    African American7.9 (0.0009)74.9 (0.37)118 (<0.0001)47.1 (0.38)55.5 (<0.0001)70.7 (<0.0001)
    Latino8.1 (<0.0001)77.0 (0.92)111 (0.89)57.6 (0.19)38.1 (0.004)50.3 (0.30)
    Asian/Pacific Islander8.1 (<0.0001)69.2 (0.01)113 (0.28)61.1 (0.05)41.3 (0.23)52.1 (0.67)
    Other8.1 (<0.0001)76.2 (0.73)116 (0.007)46.1 (0.34)45.7 (0.51)49.7 (0.29)
Education
    > high school graduate (reference group)8.073.111450.543.955.6
    High school graduate8.0 (0.12)76.9 (0.07)114 (0.55)52.2 (0.61)46.2 (0.13)55.7 (0.98)
    < high school7.9 (0.65)77.3 (0.11)113 (0.86)61.4 (0.02)44.7 (0.66)55.4 (0.94)
Annual income
    >$75,000 (reference group)7.878.211447.842.857.3
    $40,000–75,0007.9 (0.13)77.1 (0.68)112 (0.22)50.8 (0.51)43.9 (0.62)53.7 (0.29)
    $15,000–40,0008.1 (0.0006)73.8 (0.13)114 (0.91)56.9 (0.06)47.7 (0.02)56.5 (0.81)
    <$15,0008.1 (0.006)73.3 (0.15)114 (0.98)53.3 (0.32)43.4 (0.81)55.2 (0.60)
  • *

    * Data are predicted means and percentages (P values) adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, health status, chronic condition score, and type of diabetes treatment. Models for A1C level also adjusted for the upper limit of normal for the A1C assay. The model of intensity of A1C management was not adjusted for type of diabetes treatment.