Table 1

Baseline demographics and diabetes characteristics

CharacteristicFull cohort*
(N = 122,781)New-onset cohort
(N = 18,684)
Age, mean (SD), years61.8 (12.6)56.5 (13.1)
Female sex57,779 (47.1)8,723 (46.7)
Race/ethnicity
 African American13,169 (11.3)1,751 (10.5)
 Asian11,505 (9.9)1,810 (10.8)
 Filipino8,793 (7.5)1,469 (8.8)
 Latino17,391 (14.9)2,798 (16.7)
 White56,493 (48.4)7,825 (46.8)
 Mixed7,592 (6.5)828 (5.0)
 Other1,894 (1.6)249 (1.5)
Socioeconomic status: neighborhood deprivation index
 1st quartile (least deprived)22,370 (19.8)3,301 (19.5)
 2nd quartile34,142 (30.2)5,092 (30.0)
 3rd quartile33,122 (29.3)5,138 (30.3)
 4th quartile (most deprived)23,363 (20.7)3,434 (20.2)
HbA1c
 <5.7% [<39 mmol/mol]4,807 (3.9)1,288 (7.1)
 5.7–6.4% [39–46 mmol/mol]27,232 (22.3)5,213 (28.6)
 6.5–7.9% [47–63 mmol/mol]59,286 (48.6)8,225 (45.1)
 8.0% + [≥64 mmol/mol]30,775 (25.2)3,495 (19.2)
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m231.1 (5.4)31.5 (5.4)
eGFR, mean (SD), mL/min/1.73 m277.5 (23.8)85.2 (21.5)
Diabetes medication
 None13,639 (11.1)5,133 (27.5)
 Oral agents only86,064 (70.1)12,632 (67.6)
 Any insulin23,078 (18.8)919 (4.9)
Diabetes duration, median (IQR), years5.9 (2.9–11.2)0.9 (0.6–1.4)
  • Data are expressed as n (%), unless otherwise indicated. IQR, interquartile range.

  • *Missing data in full cohort: race (N = 5,944), socioeconomic status (N = 9,784), HbA1c level (N = 681), diabetes duration (N = 19,229), BMI (N = 36,513), eGFR (N = 7,300).

  • †New-onset diabetes defined as <2 years since diagnosis. Missing data in new-onset cohort: race (N = 1,954), socioeconomic status (N = 1,719), HbA1c level (N = 463), BMI (N = 4,946), eGFR (N = 1,054).