Table 1—

Characteristics of ODM, offspring of diabetic fathers, and control children

ODMP*Control childrenPOffspring of diabetic fathers
n4154841
Mothers
    Age (years)28.8 ± 4.6<0.00123.5 ± 4.00.0324.9 ± 4.1
    Height (cm)153.6 ± 6.70.2154.8 ± 5.40.4154.0 ± 6.4
    BMI (kg/m2)26.9 ± 4.1<0.00123.3 ± 3.40.423.9 ± 3.7
Offspring
    Birth
        Gestational age (weeks)39.1 ± 1.20.839.0 ± 1.80.939.1 ± 1.2
        Preterm births1 (2.9)0.246 (8.4)0.42 (4.9)
        Weight (g)3344 ± 421<0.0012973 ± 4080.052869 ± 305
        SGA0 (0)0.0264 (11.7)0.66 (14.6)
        Crown-heel length (cm)50.5 ± 2.3<0.00149.2 ± 2.10.448.9 ± 1.9
        Ponderal index (kg/m3)26.0 ± 2.50.0124.9 ± 2.70.324.5 ± 1.8
        MUAC (cm)11.3 ± 0.8<0.00110.5 ± 0.90.0310.2 ± 0.7
        Triceps skinfold (mm)5.1 (4.6–6.1)<0.0014.2 (3.7–4.9)0.064.0 (3.6–4.4)
        Subscapular skinfold (mm)5.3 (4.7–6.2)<0.0014.4 (4.0–5.0)0.0534.2 (3.8–4.6)
    1 year
        Weight (kg)8.5 ± 1.20.88.4 ± 1.10.58.3 ± 1.0
        Crown-heel length (cm)73.5 ± 2.50.673.3 ± 2.90.372.8 ± 2.6
        BMI (kg/m2)15.6 ± 1.70.915.7 ± 1.40.915.6 ± 1.5
        MUAC (cm)14.3 ± 1.10.214.1 ± 1.10.814.1 ± 1.3
        Triceps skinfold (mm)7.8 (6.9–9.5)0.77.7 (6.8–8.9)0.9957.8 (6.6–8.8)
        Subscapular skinfold (mm)6.5 (5.3–7.9)0.86.4 (5.5–7.3)0.76.4 (5.6–7.1)
    5 years
        Weight (kg)15.8 ± 2.10.0915.2 ± 2.00.9615.2 ± 1.9
        Crown-heel length (cm)106.0 ± 4.50.6105.6 ± 4.40.6106.0 ± 4.3
        BMI (kg/m2)14.0 ± 1.20.0313.6 ± 1.10.713.5 ± 1.0
        MUAC (cm)15.9 ± 1.30.00615.3 ± 1.20.9615.3 ± 1.2
        Triceps skinfold (mm)8.5 (6.7–10.3)0.017.7 (6.5–8.9)0.28.0 (7.1–8.9)
        Subscapular skinfold (mm)6.6 (5.2–8.3)0.015.9 (4.9–6.9)0.46.1 (5.1–7.1)
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or geometric mean (interquartile range).

  • *

    * P for the difference between ODM and control children;

  • P for the difference between offspring of diabetic fathers and control children. MUAC, mid–upper arm circumference; SGA, small for gestational age.