Table 2—

Glucose and insulin concentrations according to maternal GDM and paternal diabetes status

ODM
P*
Control children
P
Offspring of diabetic fathers
TotalGirlsBoysTotalGirlsBoysTotalGirlsBoysTotalGirlsBoysTotalGirlsBoys
n352213474243231412120
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)
    Fasting4.8 ± 0.54.7 ± 0.64.9 ± 0.40.80.50.54.8 ± 0.54.8 ± 0.54.8 ± 0.50.90.70.84.8 ± 0.54.8 ± 0.44.8 ± 0.5
    30 min7.5 ± 1.47.7 ± 1.67.3 ± 0.90.30.30.87.3 ± 1.47.3 ± 1.47.2 ± 1.50.50.50.27.1 ± 1.37.5 ± 1.36.7 ± 1.6
    120 min6.1 ± 1.16.2 ± 1.35.9 ± 0.70.30.20.85.9 ± 1.05.8 ± 0.96.0 ± 1.00.40.10.0075.7 ± 1.26.1 ± 1.15.3 ± 1.1
A1C (%)5.6 ± 0.95.7 ± 1.05.4 ± 0.40.60.50.55.5 ± 0.55.5 ± 0.55.6 ± 0.50.40.50.65.6 ± 0.45.6 ± 0.35.6 ± 0.5
IGT4 (11.4)4 (18.3)0.01<0.0010.415 (3.2)4 (1.7)11 (4.8)0.10.010.973 (7.7)2 (10.5)1 (5)
Plasma insulin (pmol/l)
    Fasting23 (14–35)25 (17–36)20 (11–32)0.10.40.319 (12–29)22 (14–32)17 (11–27)0.20.70.122 (14–34)23 (18–32)21 (12–36)
    30 min172 (123–275)210 (141–291)123 (79–241)0.10.050.97136 (87–225)152 (103–242)122 (73–213)0.960.50.6136 (104–252)136 (103–242)135 (88–254)
    120 min105 (73–150)122 (74–171)82 (52–142)0.030.040.782 (57–127)90 (62–131)76 (52–121)0.040.50.00863 (29–125)81 (62–131)49 (25–79)
Other insulin variables
    HOMA0.8 (0.5–1.3)0.9 (0.6–1.3)0.7 (0.3–1.0)0.20.50.30.7 (0.4–1.1)0.8 (0.5–1.2)0.6 (0.4–1.0)0.20.70.20.8 (0.5–1.3)0.8 (0.5–1.2)0.8 (0.4–1.3)
    Insulin increment (pmol/mmol)36 (20–47)44 (27–54)26 (12–38)0.10.040.829 (14–40)32 (16–44)27 (12–38)0.70.80.431 (16–46)30 (16–44)31 (15–48)
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or geometric mean (interquartile range).

  • *

    * P for the difference between ODM control children.

  • P for the difference between offspring of diabetic fathers and control children.