Table 3—

Anthropometry, insulin concentrations, and HOMA at 5 years in the control children according to quartiles of maternal insulin (IAUC), glucose (GAUC), and paternal insulin

nBMI (kg/m2)Height (cm)MUAC (cm)Skinfold thickness (mm)
30-min insulin (pmol/l)HOMAInsulin increment (pmol/mmol)
TricepsSubscapular
Maternal IAUC
    1 (lowest)12313.5105.515.37.86.11521.026
    211313.5105.515.27.76.01610.929
    312413.5105.515.27.65.91870.834
    4 (highest)10113.9106.015.78.76.62240.942
    P*0.020.40.0070.0020.06<0.0010.998<0.001
    P0.040.50.10.020.08<0.0010.2<0.001
Maternal GAUC
    1 (lowest)12713.6105.415.38.16.41600.928
    214113.5105.415.37.76.01820.933
    311613.6105.815.47.65.81830.833
    4 (highest)9413.6106.015.48.46.41960.936
    P*0.05§0.50.40.001§<0.001§0.040.60.06
    P0.01§0.20.90.001§<0.001§0.30.20.4
Paternal fasting insulin
    1 (lowest)11013.5105.415.27.66.11510.827
    210713.6105.915.37.95.91760.932
    39713.5105.615.48.06.11971.035
    4 (highest)9513.6105.915.48.16.22010.936
    P*0.40.10.070.0040.070.040.020.01
    P0.60.60.970.080.002§0.60.40.3
  • P values were derived by multiple linear regressions, using all variables as continuous.

  • *

    * Adjusted for sex.

  • Adjusted for sex, maternal sum of skinfold measurements, and socioeconomic status.

  • Adjusted for sex, maternal sum of skinfold measurements, child’s sum of skinfold measurements at 5 years, and socioeconomic status.

  • §

    § Quadratic association.

  • Adjusted for sex, paternal sum of skinfold measurements, and socioeconomic status.

  • P adjusted for sex, paternal sum of skinfold measurements, child’s sum of skinfold measurements at 5 years, and socioeconomic status. MUAC, mid–upper arm circumference.