Table 2—

Linear and logistic regression results of the effect of chronic pain on diabetes self-management*

Self-management
Difficulty taking diabetes medicationDifficulty with exerciseDifficulty following eating planDifficulty with foot careDifficulty with monitoring
β-Coefficient (95% CI)P
Chronic pain−5.0 (−7.8 to −2.2)0.0021.7 (0.68–4.5)3.0 (2.1–4.1)1.6 (1.2–2.1)1.2 (0.75–1.9)1.3 (0.62–2.5)
CES-D 10 score ≥10−6.6 (−8.9 to −4.3)0.0003.2 (2.1–5.0)1.3 (0.73–2.4)1.7 (1.2–2.4)3.2 (1.9–5.3)1.2 (0.84–1.8)
Health fair or poor−3.7 (−6.2 to −1.1)0.0080.95 (0.39–2.3)2.0 (1.3–3.0)1.2 (0.88–1.7)0.93 (0.56–1.5)1.4 (0.95–2.0)
1 comorbid condition vs. none0.72 (−0.87 to 2.3)0.3500.69 (0.25–1.9)1.4 (1.0–1.8)1.2 (0.87–1.7)1.1 (0.57–2.0)0.74 (0.41–1.3)
≥2 comorbid conditions vs. none−1.5 (−3.5 to 0.41)0.1101.7 (1.1–2.7)2.0 (1.2–3.2)1.1 (0.80–1.5)1.7 (1.0–3.0)0.79 (0.51–1.2)
Diabetes not a priority−4.9 (−8.1 to −1.8)0.0041.8 (0.99–3.3)1.3 (1.0–1.6)1.8 (1.2–2.8)1.5 (0.83–2.7)1.7 (1.4–2.2)
  • Data are adjusted OR (95% CI) unless otherwise stated.

  • *

    * All models were adjusted for the variables listed as well as for annual household income, education, insulin use, age, sex, race, BMI, and clustering by site.