Table 1—

Age-adjusted characteristics according to quintiles of dietary vitamin D or calcium intake among 10,066 apparently healthy women in the Women’s Health Study*

CharacteristicsDietary calcium
Dietary vitamin D
Q1 (223–561)Q3 (684–805)Q5 (1005–2596)P for trendQ1 (5.36–140)Q3 (190–243)Q5 (316–1058)P for trend
Median intake4867401,168111215377
Mean age (years)52 ± 6.952 ± 6.753 ± 7.20.0452 ± 6.752 ± 7.153 ± 7.3<0.0001
Mean BMI (kg/m2)26.425.925.1<0.000126.226.025.3<0.0001
Current smoking (%)17.710.17.2<0.000115.09.38.2<0.0001
Vigorous exercise (four or more times per week) (%)7.611.414.1<0.00018.910.814.5<0.0001
Alcohol consumption (g/day)<0.00015.
Parental history of myocardial infarction before age 60 years (%)15.314.412.80.1915.915.414.20.68
History of hypertension (%)23.422.117.7<0.000122.819.719.80.02
History of hyperlipidemia (%)§23.724.222.70.1923.124.324.20.29
Multivitamin use (%)12.925.445.7<0.00017.611.975.2<0.0001
Mean daily intake
    Total calorie (kcal)1,6531,7571,6620.0021,6471,8211,6360.05
Total fat (g)62.357.053.7<0.000161.157.555.1<0.0001
Protein (g)76.580.584.2<0.000174.782.183.7<0.0001
Cholesterol (mg)235221214<0.00012182252240.12
Fiber (g)16.819.219.3<0.000117.918.619.2<0.0001
Dietary glycemic load§165168168<0.00011681661680.95
Calcium (mg)5018631,695<0.00016869471,289<0.0001
Vitamin D (IU)194327504<0.0001116268713<0.0001
Total dairy products (servings)0.992.012.61<0.00011.212.162.17<0.0001
Total fish intake (servings)<0.0001
Red meat (servings)0.880.670.54<0.00010.800.740.58<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * All nutrient variables are energy adjusted.

  • Intake ranges are in parenthesis; mg/day for calcium and IU/day for vitamin D; history of hypertension is defined as a diagnosis of physician or self-reported blood pressure >140/90 mmHg.

  • History of high cholesterol is defined as having either any history of cholesterol-lowering medication use or a physician diagnosis of high cholesterol or a self-reported cholesterol ≥240 mg/dl.

  • §

    § Glycemic load was defined as an indicator of blood glucose induced by an individual’s total carbohydrate intake. Each unit of glycemic load represents the equivalent of 1 g carbohydrate from white bread.