Table 3—

Linear and logistic regression results of the effect of pain severity on diabetes self-management*

Self-management
Difficulty taking diabetes medicationDifficulty with exerciseDifficulty following eating planDifficulty with foot careDifficulty with monitoring
β-Coefficient (95% CI)P
Pain severe or very severe−5.2 (−8.3 to −2.1)0.0032.0 (1.2–3.4)2.5 (1.3–5.0)1.2 (0.90–1.7)1.8 (0.88–3.7)1.1 (0.63–1.9)
CES-D 10 score ≥10−7.0 (−9.5 to −4.5)0.0003.3 (1.5–7.3)1.5 (0.75–2.8)1.6 (1.2–2.2)2.8 (1.4–5.6)1.5 (1.0–2.1)
Health fair or poor−2.8 (−5.1 to −0.49)0.0211.0 (0.39–2.8)1.5 (0.86–2.5)1.3 (1.0–1.6)0.72 (0.34–1.5)1.4 (0.99–1.9)
1 comorbid condition vs. none1.7 (−0.62 to 4.1)0.1400.57 (0.17–1.9)1.3 (0.93–1.9)0.93 (0.56–1.5)1.0 (0.42–2.6)0.80 (0.38–1.7)
≥ 2 comorbid conditions vs. none0.89 (−0.62 to 4.1)0.4701.3 (0.77–2.0)1.9 (1.2–3.1)0.71 (0.41–1.2)1.2 (0.47–3.0)0.82 (0.42–1.6)
Diabetes not priority−5.0 (−9.4 to −0.67)0.0262.3 (1.2–4.5)1.3 (0.76–2.2)2.6 (1.4–5.1)1.3 (0.55–3.2)1.3 (0.81–2.2)
Take pain medication5.9 (2.3–9.5)0.0030.38 (0.13–1.1)0.91 (0.65–1.3)0.44 (0.28–0.68)0.56 (0.33–0.95)0.83 (0.43–1.6)
  • Data are adjusted OR (95% CI) unless otherwise stated.

  • *

    * All models were adjusted for the variables listed as well as for annual household income, education, insulin use, age, sex, race, BMI, and for clustering by site.