Table 2—

Age-adjusted characteristics of metabolic syndrome components according to quintiles of intakes of total and dietary calcium and vitamin D*

Total calcium
Dietary calcium
Q1 (210–610)Q3 (771–979)Q5 (1284–4211)P for trendQ1 (223–561)Q3 (684–805)Q5 (1005–2596)P for trend
Metabolic abnormalities*
    Abdominal obesity (%)
Waist circumference (>35 inches)46.641.837.1<0.000144.842.539.0<0.0001
BMI ≥30 kg/m221.017.013.1<0.000120.018.114.1<0.0001
    Low HDL cholesterol (%)54.150.645.1<0.000152.347.349.40.06
    Hypertriglyceridemia (%)28.326.526.30.1628.827.525.60.03
    High blood pressure (%)§34.430.326.3<0.000134.231.026.6<0.0001
    Incident type 2 diabetes (%)5.63.52.7<0.00014.93.73.30.0006
    Metabolic syndrome#
One or more components (%)71.567.563.0<0.000170.366.065.30.0001
Two or more components (%)42.536.432.3<0.000141.836.533.6<0.0001
Three or more components (%)20.717.413.3<0.000120.317.214.3<0.0001
Four or more components (%)7.75.94.3<0.00016.96.75.00.001
Five components (%)1.10.70.60.071.01.00.90.29
Total vitamin D
Dietary vitamin D
Q1 (6.0–159)Q3 (225–319)Q5 (511–2369)P for trendQ1 (5.36–140)Q3 (190–243)Q5 (316–1058)P for trend
Metabolic abnormalities*
Abdominal obesity (%)
Waist circumference (>35 inches)43.542.139.70.000443.145.938.90.003
BMI ≥30 kg/m220.218.514.4<0.000119.318.314.2<0.0001
Low HDL cholesterol (%)51.950.245.6<0.000151.150.047.80.05
Hypertriglyceridemia (%)26.925.227.90.1229.625.626.60.02
High blood pressure (%)§33.029.127.6<0.000132.731.127.4<0.0001
Incident type 2 diabetes (%)4.64.03.40.024.43.83.90.29
Metabolic syndrome(#)
One or more components (%)69.866.063.80.000169.966.965.20.001
Two or more components (%)39.736.834.3<0.000140.638.333.0<0.0001
Three or more components (%)18.717.615.20.000918.617.214.70.0003
Four or more components (%)7.15.75.00.0056.95.65.90.007
Five components (%)1.20.80.60.091.10.91.00.40
  • *

    * The metabolic abnormalities were defined following our modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria; intake ranges are in parenthesis; mg/day for calcium and IU/day for vitamin D.

  • HDL cholesterol <50 mg/dl.

  • Triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl.

  • §

    § Blood pressure ≥135/85 mmHg.

  • The diagnosis of incident type 2 diabetes during follow-up was used as an indicator of baseline abnormal glucose metabolism.

  • #

    # The metabolic syndrome was defined as having three or more components; adiposity was defined using BMI ≥30 kg/m2.