Table 3—

OR of metabolic syndrome according to quintiles of dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes*

Quintiles of intake
P for trend
1 (lowest)2345 (highest)
Total calcium
    Median intake (mg/day)5166948591,1211,586
    Age (total calorie adjusted)1.000.81 (0.69–0.95)0.78 (0.66–0.92)0.67 (0.57–0.79)0.59 (0.50–0.70)<0.0001
    Model 11.000.82 (0.70–0.97)0.84 (0.71–0.99)0.70 (0.59–0.83)0.64 (0.54–0.77)<0.0001
    Model 2§1.000.82 (0.70–0.97)0.87 (0.73–1.03)0.72 (0.61–0.87)0.68 (0.56–0.82)<0.0001
    Model 31.000.82 (0.69–0.98)0.86 (0.72–1.04)0.73 (0.60–0.88)0.68 (0.55–0.83)0.0003
Dietary calcium
    Median intake (mg/day)4866247408891,168
    Age (total calorie adjusted)1.000.85 (0.72–0.99)0.80 (0.68–0.94)0.72 (0.61–0.85)0.65 (0.55–0.76)<0.0001
    Model 11.000.90 (0.76–1.06)0.86 (0.73–1.01)0.79 (0.66–0.93)0.69 (0.58–0.82)<0.0001
    Model 2§1.000.89 (0.76–1.05)0.87 (0.74–1.03)0.81 (0.68–0.97)0.73 (0.61–0.88)0.0009
    Model 31.000.89 (0.75–1.06)0.87 (0.73–1.04)0.81 (0.67–0.98)0.74 (0.60–0.92)0.006
Supplemental calcium
    Median intake (range, mg/day)017 (<37.9)91 (37.9–<240.6)597 (>240.6)
    Age (total calorie adjusted)1.001.05 (0.89–1.24)0.96 (0.80–1.15)0.77 (0.65–0.90)<0.0001
    Model 11.001.0 (0.90–1.26)1.02 (0.84–1.23)0.84 (0.70–0.99)0.005
    Model 2§1.001.06 (0.89–1.25)1.02 (0.84–1.24)0.85 (0.71–1.01)0.01
    Model 31.001.06 (0.89–1.26)1.04 (0.86–1.27)0.86 (0.72–1.02)0.01
Total vitamin D
    Median intake (IU/day)121192267390667
    Age (total calorie adjusted)1.000.92 (0.78–1.08)0.88 (0.74–1.03)0.77 (0.65–0.91)0.78 (0.66–0.93)0.002
    Model 11.000.97 (0.82–1.14)0.93 (0.78–1.10)0.82 (0.69–0.98)0.88 (0.72–1.08)0.13
    Model 2§1.000.95 (0.80–1.13)0.92 (0.77–1.09)0.83 (0.69–1.00)0.89 (0.72–1.09)0.22
    Model 31.001.00 (0.84–1.20)1.01 (0.84–1.22)0.97 (0.79–1.19)1.05 (0.84–1.32)0.68
Dietary vitamin D
    Median intake (IU/day)111167215275377
    Age (total calorie adjusted)1.000.98 (0.83–1.16)0.89 (0.75–1.05)0.85 (0.72–1.00)0.77 (0.65–0.91)0.0005
    Model 11.001.03 (0.87–1.22)0.96 (0.81–1.14)0.92 (0.78–1.09)0.84 (0.71–1.00)0.02
    Model 2§1.001.00 (0.84–1.18)0.92 (0.78–1.10)0.90 (0.75–1.07)0.85 (0.70–1.02)0.05
    Model 31.001.04 (0.88–1.24)0.99 (0.83–1.19)1.01 (0.83–1.22)1.01 (0.82–1.24)0.94
Supplemental vitamin D
    Median intake (range, IU/day)05.34 (<12.23)28.5 (12.23–<242.7)403 (>242.7)
    Age (total calorie adjusted)1.001.02 (0.86–1.20)0.87 (0.71–1.06)0.92 (0.79–1.08)0.42
    Model 11.001.03 (0.86–1.22)0.92 (0.75–1.13)1.04 (0.86–1.27)0.45
    Model 2§1.001.02 (0.86–1.22)0.92 (0.75–1.13)1.05 (0.86–1.28)0.44
    Model 31.001.03 (0.87–1.22)0.97 (0.78–1.19)1.00 (0.83–1.20)0.16
  • Data are OR (95% CI).

  • *

    * The metabolic syndrome was defined following our modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (three or more components) and adiposity was defined using BMI (≥30 kg/m2).

  • Randomized treatment assignment in the Women’s Health Study was also included in all the models.

  • Model 1 additionally adjusted for smoking, exercise, total calories, alcohol use, multivitamin use, and parental history of myocardial infarction before age 60 years.

  • §

    § Model 2 included all covariates in model 1 and dietary intakes of total fat, cholesterol, protein, and glycemic load.

  • Model 3 included total vitamin D in the model 2 for calcium intake and included total calcium intake in the model 2 for vitamin D intake.