Table 4—

OR of metabolic syndrome according to quintiles of intakes of major dairy products*

Quintiles of intake
P for trend
1 (lowest)2345 (highest)
Total dairy products<0.91∼0.91–1.41∼1.42–1.99∼2.00–3.00>3.00
    Model 11.000.83 (0.71–0.98)0.73 (0.62–0.87)0.72 (0.61–0.86)0.63 (0.52–0.75)<0.0001
    Model 21.000.85 (0.71–1.00)0.77 (0.65–0.92)0.76 (0.64–0.91)0.66 (0.55–0.80)<0.0001
    Model 3§1.000.85 (0.71–1.00)0.76 (0.64–0.91)0.77 (0.64–0.92)0.66 (0.55–0.80)<0.0001
High-fat dairy products<0.27∼0.27–0.55∼0.56–0.91∼0.92–1.48>1.48
    Model 11.001.03 (0.87–1.22)0.88 (0.74–1.05)1.07 (0.90–1.27)0.93 (0.78–1.10)0.51
    Model 21.001.04 (0.88–1.24)0.89 (0.75–1.06)1.10 (0.93–1.31)0.94 (0.78–1.13)0.56
    Model 3§1.000.95 (0.80–1.14)0.78 (0.65–0.94)0.91 (0.76–1.10)0.71 (0.58–0.87)0.002
Low-fat dairy products<0.28∼0.28–0.78∼0.79–1.14∼1.15–2.13>2.13
    Model 11.000.75 (0.64–0.89)0.79 (0.67–0.93)0.79 (0.67–0.93)0.66 (0.56–0.78)<0.0001
    Model 21.000.80 (0.67–0.94)0.83 (0.70–0.98)0.88 (0.74–1.05)0.71 (0.59–0.84)0.001
    Model 3§1.000.81 (0.68–0.96)0.86 (0.72–1.02)0.95 (0.79–1.14)0.78 (0.64–0.95)0.07
Total milk intake<0.13∼0.13–0.43∼0.44–0.93∼0.94–1.07>1.08
    Model 11.000.95 (0.81–1.11)1.03 (0.84–1.26)0.99 (0.84–1.16)0.81 (0.68–0.96)0.01
    Model 21.000.98 (0.83–1.15)1.07 (0.87–1.31)1.03 (0.88–1.22)0.81 (0.68–0.96)0.007
    Model 3§1.000.98 (0.84–1.16)1.07 (0.87–1.32)1.07 (0.90–1.27)0.85 (0.71–1.02)0.05
  • *

    * The metabolic syndrome was defined following our modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (three or more components) and adiposity was defined using BMI (≥30 kg/m2); intakes of all dairy products are expressed as serving per day.

  • Model 1 adjusted for age, total calorie intake, and randomized treatment assignment.

  • Model 2 additionally adjusted for smoking, exercise, total calories, alcohol use, multivitamin use, and parental history of myocardial infarction before age 60 years.

  • §

    § Model 3 included all covariates in model 2 and dietary intakes of total fat, cholesterol, protein, and glycemic load.