Table 4

Full cohort: unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios for any remission

CharacteristicAny remission (n = 1,761)
n (%)Hazard ratio (95% CI)
UnadjustedP valueFully adjusted*P value
Sex
 Men820 (1.3)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 Women941 (1.7)1.29 (1.17–1.41)<0.00011.04 (0.91–1.19)0.5532
Age, years
 <4581 (0.7)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 45–65551 (0.9)1.28 (1.01–1.61)0.04031.55 (1.04–2.31)0.0323
 ≥651,129 (2.2)3.02 (2.41–3.78)<0.00012.54 (1.67–3.86)<0.0001
Race/ethnicity
 White780 (1.4)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 African American189 (1.5)1.02 (0.87–1.2)0.79311.42 (1.15–1.75)0.001
 Asian162 (1.4)0.99 (0.84–1.18)0.93150.91 (0.72–1.14)0.407
 Filipino80 (0.9)0.64 (0.51–0.8)0.00010.75 (0.56–1.01)0.0551
 Latino160 (0.9)0.66 (0.56–0.78)<0.00011.05 (0.84–1.31)0.6587
 Mixed race83 (1.1)0.78 (0.62–0.98)0.03180.97 (0.73–1.3)0.8497
 Other17 (0.9)0.66 (0.41–1.06)0.08441.09 (0.56–2.11)0.8083
Socioeconomic status: neighborhood deprivation index
 1st quartile (least deprived)398 (1.8)1.55 (1.33–1.81)<0.00011.28 (1.03–1.61)0.0288
 2nd quartile522 (1.5)1.34 (1.15–1.55)0.00011.08 (0.87–1.35)0.4599
 3rd quartile463 (1.4)1.24 (1.06–1.44)0.00561.14 (0.91–1.41)0.2485
 4th quartile (most deprived)259 (1.1)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
Time since diagnosis
 <2 years776 (4.2)13.2 (10.7–16.29)<0.00012.19 (1.63–2.95)<0.0001
 2–3 years424 (2.3)7.21 (5.79–8.98)<0.00011.68 (1.24–2.28)0.0008
 3–10 years380 (1.1)3.28 (2.62–4.09)<0.00011.6 (1.19–2.15)0.0017
 ≥10 years98 (0.3)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
Baseline HbA1c level
 <5.7% (<39 mmol/mol)131 (2.8)24.46 (16.84–35.51)<0.000119.2 (11.79–31.27)<0.0001
 5.7–6.4% (39–46 mmol/mol)628 (2.3)20.46 (14.55–28.75)<0.00016.61 (4.23–10.32)<0.0001
 6.5–7.9% (47–63 mmol/mol)963 (1.6)14.24 (10.16–19.95)<0.00012.7 (1.74–4.2)<0.0001
 ≥8% (≥64 mmol/mol)35 (0.1)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
Diabetes medication in the past 1 year
 None1,538 (11.4)239.75 (132.5–433.81)<0.0001132.51 (61.62–284.97)<0.0001
 Oral agents only212 (0.2)4.99 (2.72–9.15)<0.00013.71 (1.71–8.03)0.0009
 Any insulin11 (0)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
Diabetes medication since 2002
 None1,447 (12.3)128.07 (85.56–191.7)<0.0001
 Oral agents only290 (0.3)3.37 (2.22–5.11)<0.0001
 Any insulin24 (0.1)1.0 (Ref)
BMI, kg/m2
 <25219 (1.9)1.53 (1.29–1.82)<0.00011 (0.79–1.25)0.973
 ≥25 to <30435 (1.7)1.33 (1.15–1.54)0.00010.83 (0.69–1)0.0504
 ≥30 to <35290 (1.3)1.02 (0.87–1.2)0.78860.8 (0.66–0.96)0.0184
 ≥35308 (1.3)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
CKD stage
 0 + 1349 (0.9)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 2808 (1.6)1.8 (1.59–2.04)<0.00011.1 (0.91–1.33)0.3475
 3467 (2)2.25 (1.95–2.58)<0.00011.33 (1.06–1.67)0.0143
 448 (2)2.45 (1.81–3.31)<0.00012.11 (1.37–3.26)0.0008
 512 (1.6)1.9 (1.07–3.39)0.02832.51 (1.14–5.51)0.0221
No hypertension262 (1.4)0.91 (0.79–1.03)0.13730.97 (0.79–1.19)0.7791
Hypertension1,499 (1.5)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
No dyslipidemia445 (1.7)1.28 (1.15–1.42)<0.00011.21 (1.03–1.43)0.0216
Dyslipidemia1,316 (1.4)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
No cardiovascular disease1,392 (1.4)0.91 (0.81–1.02)0.11740.91 (0.76–1.08)0.2781
Cardiovascular disease369 (1.5)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
No diabetic retinopathy1,677 (1.7)3.86 (3.1–4.81)<0.00011.11 (0.81–1.52)0.5129
Diabetic retinopathy84 (0.4)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
No diabetic neuropathy1,498 (1.5)1.32 (1.16–1.51)<0.00010.84 (0.7–1.01)0.0689
Diabetic neuropathy263 (1.1)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
No congestive heart failure1,630 (1.4)0.78 (0.65–0.93)0.00680.88 (0.68–1.14)0.3312
Congestive heart failure131 (1.6)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; Ref, reference value.

  • *Fully adjusted model includes all variables listed in the table.

  • †Stage 0 + 1, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 2, eGFR 60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 3, eGFR 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 4, eGFR 15–29 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 5, eGFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2.