Table 1—

Baseline clinical and biochemical characteristics of Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes divided according to their ACE I/D genotype

IIDIDDP
n595539147
Sex (% women)44.541.536.20.156
Age (years)61.0 ± 12.260.9 ± 12.261.3 ± 10.90.928
Duration of diabetes (years)8.4 ± 6.58.4 ± 6.68.6 ± 6.50.907
BMI (kg/m2)24.7 ± 3.724.7 ± 3.925.0 ± 3.60.705
Waist-to-hip ratio0.89 ± 0.060.89 ± 0.090.88 ± 0.060.778
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)138 ± 23137 ± 23139 ± 220.561
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 ± 1179 ± 1180 ± 110.632
HbA1c (%)7.7 (6.7–9.2)7.5 (6.6–8.8)7.4 (6.7–8.5)0.581
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)8.0 (6.5–10.5)8.0 (6.4–10.5)8.4 (6.5–10.7)0.811
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.5 ± 1.25.6 ± 1.35.6 ± 1.20.454
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.38 (0.95–2.06)1.37 (0.88–2.10)1.35 (0.94–2.12)0.941
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.20 (1.01–1.46)1.23 (1.01–1.53)1.22 (1.03–1.39)0.347
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.4 ± 1.03.5 ± 1.13.5 ± 0.90.470
Plasma creatinine (μmol/l)75 (61–96)75 (61–97)78 (64–99)0.099
Urinary ACR (mg/mmol)2.1 (0.7–37.7)1.7 (0.6–34.6)2.0 (0.8–35.3)0.973
Urinary AER (μg/min)21.3 (8.8–319.0)20.2 (8.8–489.0)16.7 (9.8–450.0)0.784
Serum ACE activity (units/l)*46.3 ± 38.656.8 ± 21.363.9 ± 21.9<0.001
Use of lipid-lowering drugs (%)32.431.535.50.226
Use of antihypertensive drugs (%)24.024.729.60.652
Ophthalmic complications (%)38.236.032.20.355
Sensory neuropathy (%)24.023.528.90.518
Cardiovascular complications (%)14.713.718.40.346
  • Data are means ± SD or median (interquartile range). P value is the significance of ANCOVA or χ2 test.

  • *

    * Serum ACE activity was available in 399 patients.

  • Ophthalmic complications were defined as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, or cataract with impaired visual acuity <20/70 in the same eye.

  • Cardiovascular complications were defined as ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and/or peripheral vascular disease.