Table 3—

Multiple Cox regression analysis to examine the predictors for renal and cardiovascular end points in 1,281 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes

Independent variables (at baseline)HR95% CIP
Renal end point
    First model (without inclusion of serum ACE activity)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)1.021.01–1.03<0.001
Ln value of triglycerides (mmol/l)1.381.08–1.760.0098
Presence of diabetes complications at baseline*6.994.41–11.07<0.001
ACE genotype0.004
DI genotype carriers of ACE gene I/D1.611.01–2.580.04
DD genotype carriers of ACE gene I/D2.801.49–5.290.001
    Second model (with serum ACE activity)
Duration of diabetes (years)1.071.02–1.120.005
Ln value of triglycerides (mmol/l)2.651.72–4.07<0.001
Presence of diabetes complications at baseline*5.602.62–11.98<0.001
ACE genotype0.18
DI genotype carriers of ACE gene I/D2.510.84–7.490.19
DD genotype carriers of ACE gene I/D2.460.36–16.550.12
Cardiovascular end points
    Age1.101.06–1.09<0.001
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)1.021.01–1.03<0.001
    LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.241.05–1.450.009
    Presence of diabetes complications at baseline*2.121.43–3.140.0002
  • Dependent variable: renal end point defined as dialysis or doubling of baseline plasma creatinine or absolute value ≥500 μmol/l. Independent variables for renal end points: age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, ln value of triglycerides, presence of diabetes complications at baseline, and ACE gene I/D polymorphism II, DI, and DD genotype. Independent variables for cardiovascular end point: age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, ln value of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, presence of diabetes complications at baseline, and ACE gene I/D polymorphism II, DI, and DD genotype.

  • *

    * Presence of diabetes complications at baseline, including cardiovascular complications (ischemic heart disease, heart failure, stroke and/or peripheral vascular disease) or renal impairment with plasma creatinine ≥150 μmol/l or presence of retinopathy.

  • DI genotype carriers compared with II genotype carriers.

  • DD genotype carriers compared with II genotype carriers.