Table 1

Comparison of medications that could be added to metformin

SUTZDDPP-4GLP-1SGLT2AGIColesevelamCyclosetInsulin
EfficacyHighHighModerateHighHighModerateModerateModerateHigh
Major side effectsWell toleratedEdema, CHF, fracturesPancreatitis (rare)Nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis (rare)UTI, vaginal yeast infection, polyuria, orthostasisFlatulence, diarrheaWell toleratedNausea, vomitingWell tolerated
Hypoglycemia riskModerateLowLowLowLowLowLowLowHigh
WeightGainGainNeutralLossLossNeutralNeutralNeutralGain
Cardiovascular safetyNeutralNeutralNeutralNeutralUnknownMay lower MACENeutralMay lower MACENeutral
CostLowLowHighHighHighModerateModerateModerateVariable
  • AGI, α-glucosidase inhibitors; MACE, major adverse cardiovascular events; UTI, urinary tract infection.