Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants with diabetes according to BMI

Normal weight
(n = 117)Overweight
(n = 293)Obese
(n = 227)P value
Women51 (43.6)113 (38.6)121 (53.3)0.003
Age (years)78 (75–81)76 (72–81)75 (72–79)<0.001
Duration of diabetes (years)10.0 (1.0–20.0)3.0 (0–14.0)3.0 (0–10.0)<0.001
Less than high school education19 (16.2)67 (22.9)52 (22.9)0.34
Current smoker20 (17.1)33 (11.3)20 (8.81)0.02
Systolic BP (mmHg)143 (130–163)145 (132–159)143 (131–159)0.71
Diastolic BP (mmHg)73.0 (67.0–79.0)73.0 (67.0–80.0)74.0 (67.0–80.0)0.66
Hypertension104 (88.9)262 (89.4)214 (94.3)0.10
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)7.40 (6.00–8.90)7.40 (6.70–8.40)7.30 (6.60–8.50)0.80
Hemoglobin A1c (%)6.30 (5.90–7.20)6.20 (5.80–6.80)6.20 (5.90–6.60)0.20
Hemoglobin A1c (mmol/mol)45.4 (41.0–55.2)44.3 (39.9–50.8)44.3 (41.0–48.6)
Insulin medication8 (7.08)12 (4.24)9 (4.04)0.41
Hypoglycemia medication62 (54.9)149 (52.7)109 (48.9)0.53
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)197 (162–230)197 (170–232)201 (166–232)0.88
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)57.9 (45.2–72.4)49.4 (42.9–59.9)47.9 (41.3–57.5)<0.001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)114 (87.1–139)119 (91.5–149)118 (85.7–147)0.50
Triglycerides (mg/dL)91.2 (65.9–137)114 (83.2–159)136 (104–177)<0.001
CRP (mg/L)1.55 (0.75–3.40)2.00 (1.00–4.40)2.60 (1.30–5.00)<0.001
Cancer20 (17.1)40 (13.8)32 (14.2)0.68
Coronary heart disease38 (32.5)76 (25.9)64 (28.2)0.41
Microalbuminuria16 (13.7)38 (13.0)36 (15.9)0.64
BMI (kg/m2)23.8 (22.4–24.5)27.4 (26.4–28.6)32.8 (31.2–35.1)<0.001
Midlife BMI (kg/m2)24.3 (22.2–26.5)26.1 (23.8–27.8)28.6 (26.7–31.4)<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)93.0 (87.0–97.0)104 (99.0–107)116 (110–123)<0.001
VAT (cm2)253 (223–299)325 (280–376)405 (338–461)<0.001
SAT (cm2)281 (241–320)354 (316–410)465 (411–532)<0.001
Thigh muscle (cm2)226 (208–239)238 (222–256)242 (227–270)<0.001
Thigh muscle attenuation (HU)168 (165–171)167 (163–171)165 (161–169)<0.001
Gait speed (m/s)0.95 (0.80–1.05)0.94 (0.81–1.07)0.88 (0.76–1.01)0.004
Muscle strength (N · m)112 (88.7–155)134 (96.8–184)120 (90.5–168)0.006
  • Data are median (interquartile range) or n (%). BP, blood pressure; HU, Hounsfield unit; N · m, newton meter.